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Inhibition of serotonergic raphe neurons is mediated by somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which may be increased in depressed patients. We report an association of the C(-1019)G 5-HT1A promoter polymorphism with major depression and suicide in separate cohorts. In depressed patients, the homozygous G(-1019) allele was enriched twofold versus controls (p(More)
OBJECTIVE The deleterious effects of glutamate excitotoxicity are well described for central nervous system gray matter. Although overactivation of glutamate receptors also contributes to axonal injury, the mechanisms are poorly understood. Our goal was to elucidate the mechanisms of kainate receptor-dependent axonal Ca(2+) deregulation. METHODS Dorsal(More)
All proprotein convertases (PCs) of the subtilisin/kexin family contain an N-terminal prosegment that is presumed to act both as an intramolecular chaperone and an inhibitor of its parent enzyme. In this work, we examined inhibition by purified, recombinant bacterial prosegments of furin and PC7 on the in vitro processing of either the fluorogenic peptide(More)
Using reverse transcriptase-PCR and degenerate oligonucleotides derived from the active-site residues of subtilisin/kexin-like serine proteinases, we have identified a highly conserved and phylogenetically ancestral human, rat, and mouse type I membrane-bound proteinase called subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1). Computer databank searches reveal that human(More)
Processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) by beta- and gamma-secretases generates the amyloidogenic peptide Abeta, a major factor in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Following the recent identification of the beta-secretase beta-amyloid-converting enzyme (BACE), we herein investigate its zymogen processing, molecular properties, and(More)
To investigate if some residues within the prosegment of PC5A are important for its optimal proteolytic function, various PC5A mutants were cellularly expressed, and their processing activities were compared using pro-vascular endothelial growth factor C (pro-VEGF-C) as a substrate. Although wild type PC5A almost completely processes pro-VEGF-C, a(More)
Studies were performed to investigate the prohormone/proprotein convertase (PC)-inhibitory properties of chemical constituents of the medicinally active plant Andrographis paniculata (AP; from the family Acanthaceae), also known as 'King of Bitters'. Among the individual components tested against the clinically important convertases, furin and PC1,(More)
Prohormone convertase-1 (PC1), an endopeptidase that is structurally related to the yeast subtilisin-like Kex2 gene product, has been proposed to be involved in mammalian tissue-specific prohormone processing at pairs of basic residues. To better study this enzyme, a rat somatomammotroph cell line, GH4C1, was infected with vaccinia virus recombinants of(More)
Proprotein convertase PC4A, a member of the subtilisin/kexin family of serine proteases, was obtained in enzymically active form following expression of vaccinia virus recombinant rat (r)PC4A in GH4C1 cells. It displayed maximal activity at pH 7.0 and a Ca(2+) concentration of 2.0 mM. Using PC4-specific antibodies, Western blot analysis of the medium(More)
Endoproteolytic processing of the 26-kDa protein precursor prodynorphin (proDyn) at paired and single basic residues is most likely carried out by the proprotein convertases (PCs); however, the role of PCs at single basic residues is unclear. In previous studies we showed that limited proDyn processing by PC1/PC3 at both paired and single basic residues(More)