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BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that B lymphocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and they may be a therapeutic target. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody, selectively targets and depletes CD20+ B lymphocytes. METHODS In a phase 2, double-blind, 48-week trial involving 104 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple(More)
Although recent animal studies have fuelled growing interest in Ab-independent functions of B cells, relatively little is known about how human B cells and their subsets may contribute to the regulation of immune responses in either health or disease. In this study, we first confirm that effector cytokine production by normal human B cells is context(More)
BACKGROUND BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) was shown to have antiinflammatory and cytoprotective properties in preclinical experiments and to result in significant reductions in disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a phase 2, placebo-controlled study involving patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a(More)
B cells have paradoxical roles in autoimmunity, exerting both pathogenic and protective effects. Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We demonstrate that BCDT alleviates central(More)
B lymphocytes have critical roles as positive and negative regulators of immunity. Their inhibitory function has been associated primarily with interleukin 10 (IL-10) because B-cell-derived IL-10 can protect against autoimmune disease and increase susceptibility to pathogens. Here we identify IL-35-producing B cells as key players in the negative regulation(More)
OBJECTIVE Low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and risk, but the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in established MS has not been explored. Our aim was to assess the tolerability of high-dose oral vitamin D and its impact on biochemical, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in patients with MS prospectively. (More)
OBJECTIVE To study antibody-independent contributions of B cells to inflammatory disease activity, and the immune consequences of B-cell depletion with rituximab, in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS B-Cell effector-cytokine responses were compared between MS patients and matched controls using a 3-signal model of activation. The effects of(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in multiple sclerosis where one of their roles may be to facilitate the transmigration of circulating leukocytes into the CNS. Studies have focused on only a few MMPs, and much remains unknown of which of the 23 MMP family members is/are critical to the multiple sclerosis disease process. Using quantitative(More)
In vitro assays to measure neuronal growth are a fundamental tool used by many neurobiologists studying neuronal development and regeneration. The quantification of these assays requires accurate measurements of neurite length and neuronal cell numbers in neuronal cultures. Generally, these measurements are obtained through labor-intensive manual or(More)
Both microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the CNS parenchyma, and infiltrating blood-derived macrophages participate in inflammatory responses in the CNS. Macrophages can be polarized into M1 and M2 phenotypes, which have been linked to functional properties including production of inflammation association molecules and phagocytic activity. We compare(More)