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L6 myoblasts stably transfected with a GLUT4 cDNA harboring an exofacial myc epitope tag (L6-GLUT4myc myoblasts) were used to study the role of protein kinase B alpha (PKBalpha)/Akt1 in the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Surface GLUT4myc was detected by immunofluorescent labeling of the myc epitope in nonpermeabilized cells.(More)
We studied the development of postural control during goal-directed reaching and spontaneous arm movements in early infancy. Two groups of infants participated. The first group consisted of 10 healthy infants, who were assessed four times at the ages of 3, 4, 5 and 6 months. Each assessment consisted of simultaneous recording of video-data and surface EMGs(More)
The sodium-potassium-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase; Na(+)-K+ pump) is a ubiquitous plasma membrane enzyme that catalyzes the movement of K+ into cells in exchange for Na+. In addition, it provides the driving force for the transport of other solutes, notably amino acids, sugar, and phosphate. The regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in(More)
The precise mechanisms underlying insulin-stimulated glucose transport still require investigation. Here we assessed the effect of SB203580, an inhibitor of the p38 MAP kinase family, on insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. We found that SB203580, but not its inactive analogue (SB202474), prevented insulin-stimulated(More)
Insulin receptor substrates-1 and 2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) are pivotal in relaying insulin signaling in insulin-responsive tissues such as muscle. However, the precise contribution of IRS-1 vis-a-vis IRS-2 in insulin-mediated metabolic and mitogenic responses has not been compared directly in differentiated muscle cells. This study aimed to determine the(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) promotes the expansion of the intestinal epithelium through stimulation of the GLP-2 receptor, a recently identified member of the glucagon-secretin G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Although activation of G protein-coupled receptors may lead to stimulation of cell growth, the mechanisms transducing the GLP-2 signal to(More)
The SNARE hypothesis proposes that synaptic vesicles dock at presynaptic membranes via interactions among the vesicular, integral membrane proteins VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) and synaptotagmin and the target membrane proteins SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein with an Mr of 25 kDa) and syntaxin-1. Non-neuronal cells express isoforms of(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance associates with chronic inflammation, and participatory elements of the immune system are emerging. We hypothesized that bacterial elements acting on distinct intracellular pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) acting on nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins,(More)
Glucose transporters are membrane-embedded proteins that mediate the uptake of glucose from the surrounding medium into the cell. Glucose is the main fuel for most cells, and its uptake is rate-limiting for glucose utilization. For this reason, it is expected that glucose transport is tightly regulated. Whereas rapid regulation of glucose transporters by(More)
Thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid), a natural cofactor in dehydrogenase complexes, is used in Germany in the treatment of symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Thioctic acid improves insulin-responsive glucose utilization in rat muscle preparations and during insulin clamp studies performed in diabetic individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)