Amir Shroufi

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AIMS The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which adherence to individual vascular medications, assessed by different methods, influences the absolute and relative risks (RRs) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies(More)
INTRODUCTION Point-of-care testing for CD4 cell count is considered a promising way of reducing the time to eligibility assessment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and of increasing retention in care prior to treatment initiation. In this review, we assess the available evidence on the patient and programme impact of point-of-care CD4 testing. METHODS We(More)
INTRODUCTION Mother-to-Mother (M2M) or "Mentor Mother" programmes utilise HIV positive mothers to provide support and advice to HIV positive pregnant women and mothers of HIV exposed babies. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) supported a Mentor Mother programme in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe from 2009 to 2012; with programme beneficiaries observed to have far higher(More)
With the current demographic shift being experienced by populations globally, almost linear increases in life expectancy have been seen and can be expected. However, increases in healthy life expectancy may not keep pace. Among older populations the proportion of time spent in less than full health tends to increase. As a result, the accurate valuation of(More)
BACKGROUND In everyday practice, adherence to preventive medication for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is lower than in clinical trials and appears to decline to approximately 50% by about 5 years. The UK body for the evaluation of health technologies, NICE, currently recommends that persons with a >20% 10-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease receive(More)
BACKGROUND While there is good evidence to show that behavioural and lifestyle interventions can reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in affluent settings, less evidence exists in lower income settings.This study systematically assesses the evidence on cost-effectiveness for preventive cardiovascular interventions in low and middle-income settings. (More)
There are inefficiencies in current approaches to monitoring patients on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients typically attend clinics every 1 to 3 months for clinical assessment. The clinic costs are comparable with the costs of the drugs themselves and CD4 counts are measured every 6 months, but patients are rarely switched to(More)
OBJECTIVES In this study we examine whether adolescents treated for HIV/AIDS in southern Africa can achieve similar treatment outcomes to adults. DESIGN We have used a retrospective cohort study design to compare outcomes for adolescents and adults commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2010 in a public sector hospital clinic in(More)
BACKGROUND Norovirus (NoV) is commonly associated with gastrointestinal infection. It is normally transmitted person-to-person or from contaminated surfaces, although food-borne transmission is possible. METHODS We conducted environmental, epidemiological, and microbiological investigations to ascertain the route of transmission of two linked outbreaks of(More)
Reaching universal HIV-status awareness is crucial to ensure all HIV-infected patients access antiretroviral treatment (ART) and achieve virological suppression. Opportunities for HIV testing could be enhanced by offering self-testing in populations that fear stigma and discrimination when accessing conventional HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) in health(More)