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a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t We study a system with bimolecular irreversible kinetic reaction A + B → ∅ where the underlying transport of reactants is governed by diffusion, and the local reaction term is given by the law of mass action. We consider the case where the initial concentrations are given in terms of an average and a white noise(More)
Air sparging (AS) is a commonly applied method for treating groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). When using a constant injection of air (continuous mode), a decline in remediation efficiency is often observed, resulting from insufficient mixing of contaminants at the pore scale. It is well known that turning the injection on and(More)
The connection between the governing equations of chemical reaction and the underlying stochastic processes of particle collision and transformation have been developed previously along two end-member conditions: perfectly mixed and maximally diffusion-limited. The complete governing equation recognizes that in the perfectly mixed case, the particle (i.e.,(More)
Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. In purely diffusive systems, for example, it is known that small initial fluctuations in reactant concentrations can lead to reactant segregation, which in the long run can reduce global reaction rates due to poor(More)
Contaminant plumes whose characteristic length is smaller than the horizontal integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity, K, are abundant in shallow, phreatic aquifers. In such cases, the aquifer can be regarded as layered, with K being only a function of the vertical coordinate. The heterogeneity of K has a critical role upon the efficiency of(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with sensitive skin may not tolerate some products formulated with alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) due to unacceptable levels of stinging and irritation. OBJECTIVE To develop a neutral molecule that is well tolerated by individuals with sensitive skin without stinging or irritation, yet retains the beneficial effects of AHAs. METHODS A(More)
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