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Although the pull of gravity, primarily detected by the labyrinth, is the fundamental input for our sense of upright, vision and proprioception must also be integrated with vestibular information into a coherent perception of spatial orientation. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the role of the cortex at the temporal parietal(More)
Torsional eye movements are rotations of the eye around the line of sight. Measuring torsion is essential to understanding how the brain controls eye position and how it creates a veridical perception of object orientation in three dimensions. Torsion is also important for diagnosis of many vestibular, neurological, and ophthalmological disorders.(More)
Here we investigated how well internal estimates of direction of gravity are preserved over time and if the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and horizontal (SVH) can be used inter-changeably. Fourteen human subjects repetitively aligned a luminous line to SVV, SVH or subjective visual oblique (± 45°) over 5 min in otherwise complete darkness and also in dim(More)
OPINION STATEMENT There are few conditions in neurology that are diagnosed with such ease and certainty as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Repositioning maneuvers are highly effective in treating BPPV, inexpensive, and easy to apply. Surgery has a very minor role in the management of BPPV, and although medications may transiently ameliorate(More)
Acquired pendular nystagmus (PN) occurs commonly in multiple sclerosis (MS) and results in a highly disabling oscillopsia that impairs vision. It usually consists of pseudo-sinusoidal oscillations at a single frequency (3-5 Hz) that often briefly stop for a few hundred milliseconds after saccades and blinks. The oscillations are thought to arise from(More)
Diagnosing dizzy patients remains a daunting challenge to the clinician in spite of modern imaging and increasingly sophisticated electrophysiological testing. Here we review the major bedside tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and how, when combined with a proper examination of the other eye movement systems, one can arrive at an accurate vestibular(More)
Effect of improved diet on semen quality and scrotal circumference in the ram. ABSTRACT The aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of improved diet above maintenance requirement on reproductive parameters, including testicular size, semen volume, sperm concentration and viability. Twelve Bakhtiary rams were allocated to two groups of six animals(More)
We maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head and body. Perception of upright is a key aspect of such orientation constancy. Here we investigated whether changes in upright perception during sustained head tilt were related to simultaneous changes in torsional position of the eyes. We used a subjective(More)