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Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB), regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black-hat hackers and conclude that automation is starting to take(More)
Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), often coupled with Key Exchange (KE), offers very strong protection for secure communication and has been recommended by many major governmental and industrial bodies for use in highly sensitive applications. Over the past few years many companies started to offer various MFA services to their users and this trend is(More)
Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), often coupled with Key Exchange (KE), offers very strong protection for secure communication and has been recommended by many major governmental and industrial bodies for use in highly sensitive applications. Instantiations of the MFA concept vary in practice and in the research literature and various efforts in designing(More)
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