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Cyber-criminals have benefited from on-line banking (OB), regardless of the extensive research on financial cyber-security. To better be prepared for what the future might bring, we try to predict how hacking tools might evolve. We briefly survey the state-of-the-art tools developed by black-hat hackers and conclude that automation is starting to take(More)
The differences in log file formats employed in a variety of services and applications remain to be a problem for security analysts and developers of intrusion detection systems. The proposed solution, i.e. the usage of common log formats, has a limited utilization within existing solutions for security management. In our paper, we reveal the reasons for(More)
Looking at current IDS and SIEM systems, we observe heavy processing power dedicated solely to answering a simple question, What is the format of the log line that the IDS (or SIEM) system should process next? Due to the apparent difficulties of uniquely identifying a log line at run-time, most systems today do little or no normalisation of the events they(More)
Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), often coupled with Key Exchange (KE), offers very strong protection for secure communication and has been recommended by many major governmental and industrial bodies for use in highly sensitive applications. Over the past few years many companies started to offer various MFA services to their users and this trend is(More)
The current state of affairs regarding the way events are logged by IT systems is the source of many problems for the developers of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems. These problems stand in the way of the development of more accurate security solutions that draw their results from the data(More)
A huge amount of information about real-time events are being generated in every second in a running IT-Infrastructure and recorded by the system logs, application logs, as well as the output from the deployed security or management methods, e.g., IDS alerts, firewall logs, scanning reports, etc. To rapidly gather, process, correlate, and analyze the(More)
Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), often coupled with Key Exchange (KE), offers very strong protection for secure communication and has been recommended by many major governmental and industrial bodies for use in highly sensitive applications. Instantiations of the MFA concept vary in practice and in the research literature and various efforts in designing(More)
Mitigation techniques employed by attackers has meant that traditional Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) are no longer able to reliably protect a network in the face of ever more sophisticated attacks. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems monitor network systems by analyzing the logs they produce. In this paper, we propose a(More)