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Autocatalytic processing mediated by the carboxyterminal domain of the hedgehog (hh) protein precursor (Hh) generates an amino-terminal product that accounts for all known signaling activity. The role of autoprocessing biogenesis of the hh signal has been unclear, since a truncated unprocessed protein lacking all carboxy-terminal domain sequences retains(More)
In the course of analyzing the chemical composition of Alzheimer's disease neuritic and vascular amyloid, we have purified stable dimeric and trimeric components of Abeta peptides. These peptides (molecular mass 9.0 and 13.5 kDa) were separated by size exclusion chromatography in the presence of 80% formic acid or 5 guanidine thiocyanate, pH 7.4. The(More)
Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors, exerts opposite modulatory roles on striatal extracellular levels of glutamate and dopamine, with activation of A(1) inhibiting and activation of A(2A) receptors stimulating glutamate and dopamine release. Adenosine-mediated modulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission could be secondary(More)
Adenosine A(2A)-dopamine D(2) receptor interactions play a very important role in striatal function. A(2A)-D(2) receptor interactions provide an example of the capabilities of information processing by just two different G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, there is evidence for the coexistence of two reciprocal antagonistic interactions between A(2A) and(More)
Future therapies for diseases associated with altered dopaminergic signaling, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction or drug dependence may substantially build on the existence of intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions within dopamine receptor containing receptor mosaics (RM; dimeric or high-order receptor oligomers) where it(More)
There is evidence for strong functional antagonistic interactions between adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). Although a close physical interaction between both receptors has recently been shown using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays, the existence of a A2AR-D2R protein-protein interaction still had to be(More)
Emerging evidence shows that G protein-coupled receptors can form homo- and heteromers. These include adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor heteromers, which are most probably localized in the dendritic spines of the striatopallidal GABAergic neurons, where they are in a position to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. The discovery of A(2A)(More)
Mouse CD1d1, a member of the CD1 family of evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility antigen-like molecules, controls the differentiation and function of a T lymphocyte subset, NK1+ natural T cells, proposed to regulate immune responses. The CD1d1 crystal structure revealed a large hydrophobic binding site occupied by a ligand of unknown chemical(More)
The existence of neurotransmitter receptor heteromers is becoming broadly accepted and their functional significance is being revealed. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors produces functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers(More)
Induction of proinflammatory cytokine responses by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) of in-traerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum is believed to contribute to malaria pathogenesis. In this study, we purified the GPIs of P. falciparum to homogeneity and determined their structures by biochemical degradations and mass spectrometry. The parasite GPIs differ(More)