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Despite a lower content of many drug metabolising enzymes in the intestinal epithelium compared to the liver (e.g. intestinal CYP3A abundance in the intestine is 1% that of the liver), intestinal metabolic extraction may be similar to or exceed hepatic extraction. Modelling of events on first-pass through the intestine requires attention to the complex(More)
Reported predictions of human in vivo hepatic clearance from in vitro data have used a variety of values for the scaling factors human microsomal protein (MPPGL) and hepatocellularity (HPGL) per gram of liver, generally with no consideration of the extent of their inter-individual variability. We have collated and analysed data from a number of sources, to(More)
In vivo enzyme levels are governed by the rates of de novo enzyme synthesis and degradation. A current lack of consensus on values of the in vivo turnover half-lives of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes places a significant limitation on the accurate prediction of changes in drug concentration-time profiles associated with interactions involving enzyme(More)
The perceived failure of new drug development has been blamed on deficiencies in in vivo studies of drug efficacy and safety. Prior simulation of the potential exposure of different individuals to a given dose might help to improve the design of such studies. This should also help researchers to focus on the characteristics of individuals who present with(More)
The Simcyp population-based absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion simulator is a platform and database for 'bottom-up' mechanistic modelling and simulation of the processes of oral absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs and drug candidates in healthy and disease populations. It combines experimental data generated(More)
AIM To predict the magnitude of metabolic drug-drug interaction (mDDI) between triazolam and diltiazem and its primary metabolite N-desmethyldiltiazem (MA). METHODS Relevant in vitro metabolic and inhibitory data were incorporated into a mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model within Simcyp (Version 9.1) to simulate the time-course of(More)
Predicting the magnitude of time-dependent metabolic drug-drug (mDDIs) interactions involving cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) from in vitro data requires accurate knowledge of the inactivation parameters of the inhibitor (K(I), k(inact)) and of the turnover of the enzyme (k(deg)) in both the gut and the liver. We have predicted the magnitude of mDDIs observed(More)
The published literature on mechanism based inhibition (MBI) of CYPs was evaluated with respect to experimental design, methodology and data analysis. Significant variation was apparent in the dilution factor, ratio of preincubation to incubation times and probe substrate concentrations used, and there were some anomalies in the estimation of associated(More)
The “well-stirred” model of hepatic drug clearance was first proposed by Gillette (1971) and established by Rowland et al. (1973) and Wilkinson and Shand (1975). In the form that it is commonly used, net hepatic drug clearance based on whole-blood drug concentration (CLH,B) is derived as a function of hepatic blood flow (QH,B), the free fraction of drug in(More)
The bioavailability of drugs from oral formulations is influenced by many physiological factors including gastrointestinal fluid composition, pH and dynamics, transit and motility, and metabolism and transport, each of which may vary with age, gender, race, food, and disease. Therefore, oral bioavailability, particularly of poorly soluble and/or poorly(More)