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A diet high in fiber is associated with a decreased incidence and growth of colon cancers. Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid product of fiber fermentation within the colon, appears to mediate these salutary effects. We sought to determine the molecular mechanism by which butyrate mediates growth inhibition of colonic cancer cells and thereby to(More)
BACKGROUND Thyroid hormone (T3) is an important regulator of gut mucosal growth, differentiation, and barrier function, but its mechanism of action in the gastrointestinal tract is largely unknown. The present studies were carried out to define the molecular mechanisms by which T3 alters gut gene expression. METHODS In vivo: Adult, male, Sprague-Dawley(More)
We have used sodium butyrate-treated HT-29 cells as an in vitro model system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) gene activation. Transient transfection assays using human IAP-CAT reporter genes along with DNase I footprinting were used to localize a critical cis element (IF-III) corresponding to the sequence(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested a relationship between enterocyte phenotype and the growth state of the epithelium; under atrophic conditions, lactase gene expression is high, whereas intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression is low, and vice versa. On the basis of this model, we hypothesized that the intestinal trophic factor bombesin(More)
Conditional cash transfer programs are innovative social safety-net programs that aim to relieve poverty. They provide a regular source of income to poor families and are "conditional" in that they require poor families to invest in the health and education of their children through greater use of educational and preventive health services. Brazil's Bolsa(More)
BACKGROUND Opioid abuse and dependence is problematic across many age groups, including the working-age population and their dependents. Little is known, however, about the economic costs of opioid abuse/dependence imposed on employers, who pay for a substantial portion of healthcare costs through their contributions to employer-sponsored health insurance(More)
BACKGROUND Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs provide poor families with cash conditional on investments in health and education. Brazil's Bolsa Família program began in 2003 and is currently the largest CCT program in the world. This community-based study examines the impact of Bolsa Família on child health in a slum community in a large urban(More)
OBJECTIVES In the US, prescription opioids with technology designed to deter abuse have been introduced to deter drug abuse without hindering appropriate access for pain patients. The objective of this study was to estimate changes in medical costs following the introduction of a new formulation of extended-release (ER) oxycodone HCl (oxycodone) with(More)
The abuse of prescription opioids imposes a substantial public health and economic burden. Recent research using administrative claims data has substantiated the prevalence and cost of opioid abuse among commercially insured individuals. Although administrative claims data are readily available and have been used to effectively answer research questions(More)
OBJECTIVE Diversion and abuse of prescription opioids are important public health concerns in the US. This study examined possible sources of prescription opioids among patients diagnosed with opioid abuse. METHODS Commercially insured patients aged 12-64 diagnosed with opioid abuse/dependence ('abuse') were identified in OptumHealth Reporting and(More)