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Overgrowth by spreading molds such as Rhizopus and Mucor species is a problem with fungal enumeration media used for foods. Thirty-one antifungal compounds were surveyed for their ability to selectively inhibit such fungi while allowing growth of mycotoxigenic molds and other species of significance in food spoilage. Dichloran (2,6 dichloro-4-nitroaniline)(More)
Phenolic phytochemicals are the largest category of phytochemicals and the most widely distributed in the plant kingdom. The 3 most important groups of dietary phenolics are flavonoids, phenolic acids, and polyphenols. Flavonoids are the largest group of plant phenols and the most studied. Phenolic acids form a diverse group that includes the widely(More)
In this review, the authors discuss the development of consensus-based treatment guidelines in 1997. They also synthesize the recommendations of a closed workshop held in Budapest in late 2004 that reexamined these treatment guidelines and made further and more detailed recommendations. They explore and develop the rationale for making functional(More)
Lactic acid concentration correlated with organoleptic spoilage of refrigerated, coarsely ground beef stored in casings with low oxygen permeability. The samples were assayed over time for lactic acid concentration, total aerobic plate count, percentage of gram-positive organisms, and pH. Lactic acid increased in all samples, as did the bacterial counts and(More)
In a survey of California almonds, aflatoxin was found in 14% of 74 samples of unsorted, in-shell almonds as received by the processor in 1972, but it occurred at very low levels (below 20 parts per billion (ppb)) in 90% of the contaminated samples. The overall proportion of individual nuts contaminated was especially low and is estimated with 95%(More)
Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis was used to separate intact, chromosome-size DNA of different species of Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces. Strains of the same Saccharomyces species had similar electrophoretic karyotypes. However, reproducible differences between individual bands indicated that strain-specific(More)
Survivor curves for heat-resistant ascospores of Byssochlamys fulva exposed to lethal heat were nonlogarithmic. At lower heating temperatures, the log survivor curves were characterized by a shoulder plus an accelerating death rate; with increased temperatures, the rate approached logarithmic death. The formula (log No -- log N)a = kt + C was adapted to(More)
Bacteria, yeasts, and molds isolated from partially processed iceberg lettuce were taxonomically classified. The majority of bacterial isolates were gram-negative rods. Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Serratia species were commonly found. Yeasts most frequently isolated from lettuce included members of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Pichia, Torulaspora, and(More)
Methyl bromide (MeBr) has broad microbicidal activity, but its use as a disinfectant for food is limited by the resulting bromide residues. Increasing the MeBr concentration, exposure temperature, or exposure period of a treatment tended to increase both the microbicidal efficacy of MeBr and the bromide residues. Its sporicidal activity was less at high(More)