Learn More
Steering is an integral component of adaptive locomotor behavior. Along with reorientation of gaze and body in the direction of intended travel, body center of mass must be controlled in the mediolateral plane. In this study we examine how these subtasks are sequenced when steering is planned early or initiated under time constraints. Whole body kinematics(More)
Recent changes in European legislation have meant that certain processed abattoir waste, which has been appropriately heat treated and ground to a specified particle size, can be spread on nonpasture agricultural land. This has opened the way for the potential landspreading of mammalian meat and bone meal (mMBM) derived from animals slaughtered for human(More)
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered by many as the most important animal disease in the world. FMD is highly contagious and outbreaks incur significant costs as affected countries are severely limited in their ability to trade. A number of trade commodities may be contaminated with FMD virus (FMDV) including animal products, for example, meat. As a(More)
The number of West Nile virus (WNV)-infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft from the United States that arrive in the United Kingdom each summer was determined using a quantitative risk assessment. In the worst-case scenario, when WNV levels in mosquitoes are high (at epidemic levels) the probability of at least one WNV-infected mosquito being introduced into(More)
Decision-makers and risk managers are often called upon to prioritise on and recommend suitable measures to prevent the risk of introduction and spread of pathogens. The main objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of experts in Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom concerning the importance, effectiveness, feasibility, costs and(More)
AIMS To determine the risk associated with the use of carcase storage vessels on a scrapie infected farm. METHODS AND RESULTS A stochastic quantitative risk assessment was developed to determine the rate of accumulation and fate of scrapie in a novel low-input storage system. For an example farm infected with classical scrapie, a mean of 10(3·6) Ovine(More)
Wastewater from facilities processing livestock that may harbor transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) infectivity is permitted under license for application to land where susceptible livestock may have access. Several previous risk assessments have investigated the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) associated with wastewater(More)
In this article the development and parameterization of a quantitative assessment is described that estimates the amount of TSE infectivity that is present in a whole animal carcass (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE] for cattle and classical/atypical scrapie for sheep and lambs) and the amounts that subsequently fall to the floor during processing at(More)