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Does processing more than one stimulus concurrently impede or facilitate performance relative to processing just one stimulus? This fundamental question about workload capacity was surprisingly difficult to address empirically until Townsend and Nozawa (1995) developed a set of nonparametric analyses called systems factorial technology. We develop an(More)
Increasing the number of available sources of information may impair or facilitate performance, depending on the capacity of the processing system. Tests performed on response time distributions are proving to be useful tools in determining the workload capacity (as well as other properties) of cognitive systems. In this article, we develop a framework and(More)
A huge set of focused attention experiments show that when presented with color words printed in color, observers report the ink color faster if the carrier word is the name of the color rather than the name of an alternative color, the Stroop effect. There is also a large number (although not so numerous as the Stroop task) of so-called "redundant targets(More)
We developed a novel and game like dual 2-back computerized task, Gatekeeper, which we deployed online with 245 male and female participants ranging in age from 13 to 83 years. Gatekeeper requires participants to remember only 4 items, so does not target memory capacity, but rather measures multitasking ability and interference control in working memory.(More)
Systems factorial technology (SFT) is a theory-driven set of methodologies oriented toward identification of basic mechanisms, such as parallel versus serial processing, of perception and cognition. Studies employing SFT in visual search with small display sizes have repeatedly shown decisive evidence for parallel processing. The first strong evidence for(More)
People are especially efficient in processing certain visual stimuli such as human faces or good configurations. It has been suggested that topology and geometry play important roles in configural perception. Visual search is one area in which configurality seems to matter. When either of 2 target features leads to a correct response and the sequence(More)
This investigation brings together a response-time system identification methodology (e.g., Townsend & Wenger Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11, 391-418, 2004a) and an accuracy methodology, intended to assess models of integration across stimulus dimensions (features, modalities, etc.) that were proposed by Shaw and colleagues (e.g., Mulligan & Shaw(More)
Simultaneously presented signals may be processed in serial or in parallel. One potentially valuable indicator of a system's characteristics may be the appearance of multimodality in the response time (RT) distributions. It is known that standard serial models can predict multimodal RT distributions, but it is unknown whether multimodality is diagnostic of(More)
We examined the role of dual-task interference in working memory using a novel dual two-back task that requires a redundant-target response (i.e., a response that neither the auditory nor the visual stimulus occurred two back versus a response that one or both occurred two back) on every trial. Comparisons with performance on single two-back trials (i.e.,(More)