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Conventional kinesin, kinesin-I, is a heterotetramer of two kinesin heavy chain (KHC) subunits (KIF5A, KIF5B, or KIF5C) and two kinesin light chain (KLC) subunits. While KHC contains the motor activity, the role of KLC remains unknown. It has been suggested that KLC is involved in either modulation of KHC activity or in cargo binding. Previously, we(More)
Antitumor drugs such as doxorubicin have been encapsulated into liposomes as a means of enhancing activity and reducing toxicity. The present study was initiated to determine whether chronically administered liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin would be less toxic than the free drug. Doxorubicin was prepared in positively charged cardiolipin liposomes, and(More)
The chronic cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin as a free drug or entrapped in positive and negative liposomes was morphologically evaluated in mice treated seven times i.v. at a dose of 4 mg/kg. Liposomes were composed of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and stearylamine (positive charge) or phosphatidylserine (negative charge). Administration of free(More)
Smad proteins transduce signals carried by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) cytokine superfamily from receptor serine/threonine kinases at the cell surface to the nucleus, thereby affecting cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as pattern formation during early vertebrate development. Smad4/DPC4, located at chromosome 18q21, was(More)
We describe here an improved method of encapsulating doxorubicin in liposomes using phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and synthetic tetramyristoyl cardiolipin. With this new composition of lipids the entrapment of doxorubicin was found to be > 90%. Cytotoxicity studies using vincristine-resistant HL-60/VCR leukaemia cells showed that liposome-encapsulated(More)
Persistent black holes (PBH) are associated with axonal loss and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this work was to determine if BHT-3009, a DNA plasmid-encoding myelin basic protein (MBP), reduces the risk of new lesions becoming PBH, compared to placebo, and to test if pre-treatment serum anti-MBP antibody levels impact(More)
We have shown that doxorubicin entrapped in cardiolipin liposomes retain antitumour efficacy in mice but had diminished cardiac uptake and cardiotoxicity. Such liposomes are preferentially taken up by spleen. In a previous study we showed that a single dose of liposomal doxorubicin is not more toxic than free doxorubicin with regard to immunologic(More)
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