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Ana Avellón,1 Maria Cabrerizo,1 Teresa de Miguel, Pilar PérezBreña, Antonio Tenorio, Jose Luis Pérez, Maria Victoria Martínez de Aragón, and Gloria Trallero Author affi liations: Instituto de Salud Carlos III National Centre of Microbiology, Madrid, Spain (A. Avellón, M. Cabrerizo, T. de Miguel, P. Pérez-Breña, A. Tenorio, G. Trallero); Instituto de Salud(More)
INTRODUCTION Understanding the seasonality of influenza can help inform prevention and clinical treatment strategies. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the trends and epidemiology of outpatient influenza in South Africa prior to the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. METHODS Throughout each year, participating healthcare practitioners sent throat swabs(More)
BACKGROUND Data about respiratory coinfections with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in Africa are limited. We used an existing surveillance program for severe acute respiratory illness to evaluate a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and investigate the role of influenza virus and(More)
BACKGROUND The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) was first detected in June 2009 in South Africa and later resulted in extensive transmission throughout Africa. Established routine surveillance programs and collaboration between private and public sector laboratories allowed for comprehensive molecular epidemiological and antigenic(More)
BACKGROUND During a global influenza pandemic, the vaccine requirements of developing countries can surpass their supply capabilities, if these exist at all, compelling them to rely on developed countries for stocks that may not be available in time. There is thus a need for developing countries in general to produce their own pandemic and possibly seasonal(More)
The effectiveness of the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2014 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case-control study design including 472 cases and 362 controls. Influenza A(H3N2) was the dominant strain circulating. The overall vaccine effectiveness estimate, adjusted for age and underlying conditions, was 43·1% (95%(More)
OBJECTIVES Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and coverage data for sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Using a test-negative case-control design, we estimated influenza VE annually among individuals with influenza-like illness presenting to an outpatient sentinel surveillance programme in South Africa from 2010 to 2013. A knowledge, attitudes and practices(More)
BACKGROUND There is limited data on the epidemiology of influenza and few published estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) from Africa. In April 2009, a new influenza virus strain infecting humans was identified and rapidly spread globally. We compared the characteristics of patients ill with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to those ill with(More)
The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 is a potent pandemic threat because of its frequent transmission from birds to humans and the increasing possibility of human to human transmission. During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic it was clear that rapid influenza vaccine production is a problem worldwide. Additionally, developing countries like South Africa(More)