Amber R Toombs

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Both the number and the activity of osteoblasts are critical for normal bone growth and maintenance. Although a potential role for estrogen in protection of bone mass through inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis has been proposed, a function for androgen is much less clear. The aim of this study was to establish a direct role for androgen to influence(More)
The androgen receptor (AR), as a classic steroid receptor, generally mediates biologic responses to androgens. In bone tissue, both AR and the estrogen receptor (ER) are expressed in a variety of cell types. Because androgens can be converted into estrogen via aromatase activity, the specific role of the AR in maintenance of skeletal homoeostasis remains(More)
Non-aromatizable androgens have significant beneficial effects on skeletal homeostasis independently of conversion to estradiol, but the effects of androgens on bone cell metabolism and cell proliferation are still poorly understood. Using an osteoblastic model with enhanced androgen responsiveness, MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with androgen receptor(More)
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