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We have identified Rab10 as an ER-specific Rab GTPase that regulates ER structure and dynamics. We show that Rab10 localizes to the ER and to dynamic ER-associated structures that track along microtubules and mark the position of new ER tubule growth. Rab10 depletion or expression of a Rab10 GDP-locked mutant alters ER morphology, resulting in fewer ER(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, continuous membrane-bound organelle comprised of functionally and structurally distinct domains including the nuclear envelope, peripheral tubular ER, peripheral cisternae, and numerous membrane contact sites at the plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi, endosomes, and peroxisomes. These domains are required for(More)
A series of erythromycin A-derived semisynthetic antibiotics, featuring incorporation of a basic nitrogen atom into a ring expanded (15-membered) macrocyclic lactone, have been prepared and biologically evaluated. Semisynthetic modifications focused upon (1) varied substitution at the macrocyclic ring nitrogen and (2) epimerization or amine substitution at(More)
Azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new acid-stable 15-membered-ring macrolide, was well absorbed following oral administration in mice, rats, dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys. This compound exhibited a uniformly long elimination half-life and was distributed exceptionally well into all tissues. This extravascular penetration of azithromycin was demonstrated by(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a single continuous membrane-enclosed organelle made up of functionally and structurally distinct domains. The ER domains include the nuclear envelope (NE) and the peripheral ER, which is a network of tubules and sheets spread throughout the cytoplasm. The structural organization of the ER is related to its many different(More)
CP-45,899 {3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 4,4-dioxide, [2S-(2alpha,5alpha)]} is an irreversible inhibitor of several bacterial penicillinases and cephalosporinases. In the presence of low concentrations of CP-45,899, ampicillin and other beta-lactams readily inhibit the growth of a variety of resistant bacteria that(More)
Sulbactam (1) is a beta-lactamase inhibitor with limited oral bioavailability. Lipophilic double-ester prodrug sulbactam pivoxil (2) significantly improves the oral absorption of sulbactam, as does the mutual prodrug double ester sultamicillin (3). We have found that double-ester prodrugs of sulbactam terminating in a carboxyl group (8) also were effective(More)