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Accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain is a core feature of Parkinson disease (PD) and leads to microglial activation, production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, T-cell infiltration, and neurodegeneration. Here, we have used both an in vivo mouse model induced by viral overexpression of α-syn as well as in vitro systems to study the role(More)
OBJECTIVE Fucosylation catalyzed by fucosyltransferases (FUTs) is an important posttranslational modification involved in a variety of biologic processes. This study was undertaken to determine the roles of fucosylation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to assess the efficacy of reestablishing immune homeostasis with the use of 2-deoxy-d-galactose (2-d-gal),(More)
Mechanisms that modulate the generation of Th17 cells are incompletely understood. We report that the activation of casein kinase 2 (CK2) by CD5 is essential for the efficient generation of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo. In our study, the CD5-CK2 signaling pathway enhanced TCR-induced activation of AKT and promoted the differentiation of Th17 cells by two(More)
Inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) are being explored as therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases. We previously demonstrated that the GSK inhibitor lithium is beneficial in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In this study we report that lithium suppresses EAE induced by encephalitogenic(More)
Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with many neurological diseases. ER stress is brought on by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved pathway that transmits signals to restore homeostasis or eliminate the irreparably damaged cell. We(More)
Pathogenic Th cells and myeloid cells are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The JAK/STAT pathway is used by numerous cytokines for signaling and is critical for development, regulation, and termination of immune responses. Dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway(More)
Type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) and type II IFN (IFN-γ) mediate both regulation and inflammation in multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the underlying mechanism for these Janus-like activities of type I and II IFNs in neuroinflammation remains unclear. Although endogenous type I IFN(More)
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and remains a major cause of mortality, thus necessitating further therapeutic advancements. In breast cancer, numerous cell signaling pathways are aberrantly activated to produce the myriad phenotypes associated with malignancy; such pathways include the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-κB and JAK/STAT(More)
In glioma, microglia and macrophages are the largest population of tumor-infiltrating cells, referred to as glioma associated macrophages (GAMs). Herein, we sought to determine the role of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), in GAM functionality in glioma. We(More)
CK2 is a highly conserved and pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase that promotes many prosurvival and proinflammatory signaling pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT. These pathways are essential for CD4+ T cell activation and polarization, but little is known about how CK2 functions in T cells. In this article, we demonstrate that CK2 expression(More)