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In a longitudinal study in a UK upland site, 38% of adult sheep were detected as infected with the tick-borne bacterium Ehrlichia phagocytophila by PCR of blood samples. Infection prevalence declined significantly with sheep age but varied significantly and non-linearly with the number of adult Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding per sheep. These findings(More)
We review the findings of a longitudinal study of transmission of the intracellular tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum from sheep to Ixodes ricinus ticks under natural conditions of tick attachment in the UK. In this study, sheep-to-tick transmission efficiency varied in a quadratic relationship with the number of adult ticks that were feeding(More)
A total of 60 sheep were exposed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection on an enclosed area of Ixodes ricinus-infested pasture in North Wales, United Kingdom, and rapidly acquired acute A. phagocytophilum infections detectable by PCR and blood smear examination. Of the ticks that had engorged in the previous instar on infected sheep, 52% of adult ticks and(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium that is zoonotic in the USA and southern Europe, but although the bacterium is endemic in the UK, no cases of clinical human disease have yet been detected in that country. Potential genomic differences amongst UK and USA isolates were investigated by comparing partial 16S rRNA gene and p44 paralogue(More)
Engorged Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected from sheep resident in an upland UK field site were significantly lighter than nymphs that engorged on previously tick-naïve sheep, indicating that site-resident sheep continually exposed to ticks acquired anti-tick resistance. The weights of engorged nymphs that fed on naturally tick-resistant sheep increased(More)
Academic literature has recorded increased microbial resistance in the United States and recent news media has adversely portrayed men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) transmission. CA-MRSA is a specific type of bacteria resistant to certain(More)
To investigate the reservoir tissues of the tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep, six 6-month-old lambs were infected with a field isolate of the bacterium and maintained under tick-free conditions. At one and two weeks post-infection, A. phagocytophilum was detected in the peripheral blood of all lambs by examining(More)
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