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BACKGROUND Gene regulation plays a central role in the adaptation of organisms to their environments. There are many molecular components to gene regulation, and it is often difficult to determine both the genetic basis of adaptation and the evolutionary forces that influence regulation. In multiple evolution experiments with the bacteriophage ϕX174,(More)
Previously, we showed that adaptive substitutions in one of the three promoters of the bacteriophage ϕX174 improved fitness at high-temperature by decreasing transcript levels three- to four-fold. To understand how such an extreme change in gene expression might lead to an almost two-fold increase in fitness at the adaptive temperature, we focused on stages(More)
To investigate how high temperature affects viral transcription, the absolute amounts of mRNA for six bacteriophage φX174 genes were compared at 37 °C and 42 °C using Q-PCR. At 37 °C, mRNA levels for all genes were consistent with previous studies, but at 42 °C mRNA levels for four genes were significantly different from levels at 37 °C. Transcript levels(More)
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