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Cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for many aspects of cellular and subcellular movement. LIS1, NudE, and NudEL are dynein interactors initially implicated in brain developmental disease but now known to be required in cell migration, nuclear, centrosomal, and microtubule transport, mitosis, and growth cone motility. Identification of a specific role for(More)
Intracellular transport via the microtubule motors kinesin and dynein plays an important role in maintaining cell structure and function. Often, multiple kinesin or dynein motors move the same cargo. Their collective function depends critically on the single motors' detachment kinetics under load, which we experimentally measure here. This experimental(More)
Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load(More)
The mechanoenzyme Kinesin moves processively toward the plus end of a microtubule by taking 8-nm steps. The dependence of the velocity V on ATP is successfully reproduced by Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describe binding of a kinesin head, denoted by K, to an ATP molecule and the subsequent hydrolysis according to: (1) , where k on (k off) are rate(More)
BACKGROUND Intracellular transport via processive kinesin, dynein, and myosin molecular motors plays an important role in maintaining cell structure and function. In many cases, cargoes move distances longer than expected for single motors; there is significant evidence that this increased travel is in part due to multiple motors working together to move(More)
Diverse cellular processes are driven by the collective force from multiple motor proteins. Disease-causing mutations cause aberrant function of motors, but the impact is observed at a cellular level and beyond, therefore necessitating an understanding of cell mechanics at the level of motor molecules. One way to do this is by measuring the force generated(More)
We have generalized our " unified " model of evolutionary ecology by taking into account the possible movements of the organisms from one " patch " to another within the same ecosystem. We model the spatial extension of the ecosystem (i.e., the geography) by a square lattice where each site corresponds to a distinct " patch ". A self-organizing hierarchical(More)
Maytansinoid conjugates are currently under different phases of clinical trials and have been showing promising activity for various types of cancers. In this study, we have elucidated the mechanism of action of ansamitocin P3, a structural analogue of maytansine for its anticancer activity. Ansamitocin P3 potently inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7,(More)
Microtubules are stiff filamentary proteins that constitute an important component of the cytoskeleton of cells. These are known to exhibit a dynamic instability. A steadily growing microtubule can suddenly start depolymerizing very rapidly; this phenomenon is known as a "catastrophe." However, often a shrinking microtubule is "rescued" and starts(More)