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Light excitation powers the reversible shuttling movement of the ring component of a rotaxane between two stations located at a 1.3-nm distance on its dumbbell-shaped component. The photoinduced shuttling movement, which occurs in solution, is based on a "four-stroke" synchronized sequence of electronic and nuclear processes. At room temperature the(More)
Bistable [2]rotaxanes display controllable switching properties in solution, on surfaces, and in devices. These phenomena are based on the electrochemically and electrically driven mechanical shuttling motion of the ring-shaped component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)) (denoted as the ring), between a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit and a(More)
The supramolecular chemistry of anions provides a means to sense and manipulate anions in their many chemical and biological roles. For this purpose, Click chemistry facilitated the synthetic creation of new receptors and thus, an opportunity to aid in the recent re-examination of CH...anion hydrogen bonding. This tutorial review will focus on the(More)
Two switchable, palindromically constituted bistable [3]rotaxanes have been designed and synthesized with a pair of mechanically mobile rings encircling a single dumbbell. These designs are reminiscent of a "molecular muscle" for the purposes of amplifying and harnessing molecular mechanical motions. The location of the two cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene)(More)
In everyday life, a macroscopic valve is a device with a movable control element that regulates the flow of gases or liquids by blocking and opening passageways. Construction of such a device on the nanoscale level requires (i) suitably proportioned movable control elements, (ii) a method for operating them on demand, and (iii) appropriately sized(More)
We report on the kinetics and ground-state thermodynamics associated with electrochemically driven molecular mechanical switching of three bistable [2]rotaxanes in acetonitrile solution, polymer electrolyte gels, and molecular-switch tunnel junctions (MSTJs). For all rotaxanes a pi-electron-deficient cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) ring component(More)
Encouraged by the prospect of producing an electrochemical, color-switchable red-green-blue (RGB) dye compound, we have designed, synthesized, and characterized two three-station [2]catenanes. Both are composed of macrocyclic polyethers containing three pi-electron-rich stations, which act as recognition sites for a pi-electron-deficient tetracationic(More)
A microcantilever, coated with a monolayer of redox-controllable, bistable [3]rotaxane molecules (artificial molecular muscles), undergoes reversible deflections when subjected to alternating oxidizing and reducing electrochemical potentials. The microcantilever devices were prepared by precoating one surface with a gold film and allowing the palindromic(More)
A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based(More)