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During senescence and at times of stress, plants can mobilize needed nitrogen from chloroplasts in leaves to other organs. Much of the total leaf nitrogen is allocated to the most abundant plant protein, Rubisco. While bulk degradation of the cytosol and organelles in plants occurs by autophagy, the role of autophagy in the degradation of chloroplast(More)
Photoinactivation of PSII is thought to be caused by the excessive light energy that is neither used for photosynthetic electron transport nor dissipated as heat. However, the relationship between the photoinactivation rate and excess energy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Chenopodium album L. plants grown under high-light and high-nitrogen (HL-HN)(More)
The effects of growth CO2 levels on the photosynthetic rates; the amounts of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), chlorophyll (Chl), and cytochrome f; sucrose phosphate synthase activity; and total N content were examined in young, fully expanded leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The plants were grown hydroponically under two CO2 partial(More)
Lysates of chloroplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Aoba) leaves were incubated on ice (pH 5.7) for 0 to 60 min in light (15 mumol quanta m-2 s-1), and degradation of the large subunit (LSU) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco: EC 4.1.1.39) was analyzed by applying immunoblotting with site-specific antibodies(More)
The kinetic parameters of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) were determined by rapidly assaying the leaf extracts. The respective K m and V max values for carboxylase and oxygenase activities were significantly higher for wheat than for rice. In particular, the(More)
Nitrogen partitioning among proteins in chloroplasts and mitochondria was examined in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically with different nitrogen concentrations. In pea leaves, chloroplast nitrogen accounted for 75 to 80% of total leaf nitrogen. We routinely found that 8% of total ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate(More)
The photosynthetic gas-exchange rates and various biochemical components of photosynthesis, including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content, cytochrome (Cyt) f content, and the activities of two sucrose synthesis enzymes, were examined in young, fully expanded leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically in different nitrogen(More)
Immunocytochemical electron-microscopic observation indicated that ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) and/or its degradation products are localized in small spherical bodies having a diameter of 0.4-1.2 micro m in naturally senescing leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). These Rubisco-containing bodies (RCBs) were found(More)
The role of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in photosynthetic regulation and plant growth at several temperatures was examined in rice (Oryza sativa) that is defective in CHLORORESPIRATORY REDUCTION 6 (CRR6), which is required for accumulation of sub-complex A of the chloroplast NDH complex (crr6). NdhK was(More)
We tested the hypothesis that plants grown under high light intensity (HL-plants) had a large activity of cyclic electron flow around PSI (CEF-PSI) compared with plants grown under low light (LL-plants). To evaluate the activity of CEF-PSI, the relationships between photosynthesis rate, quantum yields of both PSII and PSI, and Chl fluorescence parameters(More)