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In the present chapter, the structures and mechanisms of the major components of mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chains are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the four protein complexes and their cofactors that catalyse the electron transfer pathway between oxidation of NADH and succinate and the reduction of oxygen to water. Current ideas are(More)
The known subunits of yeast mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase are reviewed. The structures of all eleven of its subunits are explored by building homology models based on the published structures of the homologous bovine subunits and similarities and differences are highlighted, particularly of the core functional subunit I. Yeast genetic techniques to(More)
In 2005, it was found that the fluorescence of crystals of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII of green plants is significantly quenched when compared to the fluorescence of isolated LHCII (A. A. Pascal et al., Nature, 2005, 436, 134-137). The Raman spectrum of crystallized LHCII was also found to be different from that of isolated LHCII but very(More)
Electrochemistry coupled with Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the redox properties of recombinant alternative ubiquinol oxidase from Trypanosoma brucei, the organism responsible for African sleeping sickness. Stepwise reduction of the fully oxidized resting state of recombinant alternative ubiquinol oxidase revealed two(More)
Although internal electron transfer and oxygen reduction chemistry in cytochrome c oxidase are fairly well understood, the associated groups and pathways that couple these processes to gated proton translocation across the membrane remain unclear. Several possible pathways have been identified from crystallographic structural models; these involve(More)
The structures and functions of hydrophilic channels in electron-transferring membrane proteins are discussed. A distinction is made between proton channels that can conduct protons and dielectric channels that are non-conducting but can dielectrically polarize in response to the introduction of charge changes in buried functional centres. Functions of the(More)
Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+)cations to bovine cytochrome c oxidase in its fully oxidized and partially reduced, cyanide-ligated (a(2+)a3(3+)-CN) (mixed valence) forms. These ions induced distinctly different IR binding spectra, indicating that the(More)
Carboxyl groups of possible functional importance in bovine and bacterial cytochrome c oxidases (CcO) are reviewed and assessed. A critical analysis is presented of available mid-infrared vibrational data that pertain to these functional carboxyl groups. These data and their interpretations are discussed in relation to current models of the mechanism of(More)
Assignments of IR bands of reduced minus oxidized IR difference spectra of bovine and related cytochrome c oxidases are reviewed and their linkages to specific metal centres are assessed. To aid this, redox-poised difference spectra in the presence of cyanide or carbon monoxide are presented. These ligands fix the redox states of either haem a3 alone or(More)
We have studied internal electron transfer during the reaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase with dioxygen. Similar absorbance changes were observed with this yeast oxidase as with the previously studied Rhodobacter sphaeroides and bovine mitochondrial oxidases, which suggests that the reaction proceeds along the same(More)