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IMPORTANCE The DSM-5 contains revised diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the DSM-IV-TR. Potential impacts of the new criteria on ASD prevalence are unclear. OBJECTIVE To assess potential effects of the DSM-5 ASD criteria on ASD prevalence estimation by retrospectively applying the new criteria to population-based surveillance data(More)
Research into environmental factors associated with suicide has historically focused on meteorological variables. Recently, a heightened risk of suicide related to short-term exposure to airborne particulate matter was reported. Here, we examined the associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide and(More)
This study describes medical conditions experienced by a population-based cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder whose significant developmental concerns were apparent during childhood. As part of a 25-year outcome study of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood, medical histories were collected on 92 participants (N = 69 males) who were first(More)
Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a medical examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification(More)
BACKGROUND The rising population of individuals identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for further investigation of its underlying etiology. A disturbance in the fetal steroid hormone environment may be a mechanism in which environmental and genetic risk factors interact. The mother, fetus, and placenta collectively create the fetal steroid(More)
INTRODUCTION The present study sought to identify time-dependent within-participant effects of CYP2A6 genotypes on smoking frequency and nicotine dependence in young smokers. METHODS Predicted nicotine metabolic rate based on CYP2A6 diplotypes (CYP2A6 diplotype predicted rate [CDPR]) was partitioned into Normal, Intermediate, and Slow categories using a(More)
We have used unique population-based data resources to identify 22 high-risk extended pedigrees that show clustering of suicide over twice that expected from demographically adjusted incidence rates. In this initial study of genetic risk factors, we focused on two high-risk pedigrees. In the first of these (pedigree 12), 10/19 (53%) of the related suicides(More)
This study examined the hypotheses that (1) sociodemographic risk factors in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) significantly vary by disability type, and (2) measures of income (mean adjusted gross income, mean federal taxes paid, and mean tax exemptions) significantly increase between 1994 and 2002, and(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to identify psychiatric symptom patterns reported by individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) in the outpatient clinic setting. METHODS Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) results, phenylalanine (phe) levels, and demographic information were collected through a retrospective chart review on 64 participants in the study,(More)
Prenatal and perinatal exposures to air pollutants have been shown to adversely affect birth outcomes in offspring and may contribute to prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For this ecologic study, we evaluated the association between ASD prevalence, at the census tract level, and proximity of tract centroids to the closest industrial facilities(More)