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Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in signal transduction pathways activated by a range of stimuli and mediate a number of physiological and pathological changes in cell function. MAP kinase activation requires phosphorylation on a threonine and tyrosine residue located within the activation loop of kinase subdomain VIII. This(More)
MAP kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) dephosphorylates phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine and inactivates selectively ERK family mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. MKP-3 was activated by direct binding to purified ERK2. Activation was independent of protein kinase activity and required binding of ERK2 to the noncatalytic amino-terminus of MKP-3. Neither(More)
ALG-2 is a EF hand calcium binding protein with sequence homologies to calmodulin. Vito et al have shown that ALG-2 expression is required for apoptosis following a number of death stimuli,1 although nothing is known about the effectors which underlie ALG-2 function. Here we have used ALG-2 as bait in a yeast two hybrid screen of a mouse brain cDNA library.(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a dual specificity phosphatase that inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAP kinases. This reflects tight and specific binding between ERK and the MKP-3 amino terminus with consequent phosphatase activation and dephosphorylation of the bound MAP kinase. We have used a series(More)
The PI3K/Akt pathway is activated in stimulated cells and in many cancers to promote glucose metabolism and prevent cell death. Although inhibition of Akt-mediated cell survival may provide a means to eliminate cancer cells, this survival pathway remains incompletely understood. In particular, unlike anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins that prevent(More)
Identification of transcription factors regulating tissue-specific gene expression implies functional tests in transcription systems. In spite of its practical advantages, the Xenopus oocyte has only rarely been used for trans-activation studies, because some critical parameters inherent to the system may cause artefacts. Depending on the amount of DNA(More)
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a death domain (DD) containing receptor of the TNF/FAS(APO-1) family. p75NTR has recently been shown to mediate apoptosis in certain types of neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes. The molecular mechanisms by which p75NTR stimulates apoptosis are still unknown. Here, we have tested whether overexpression of p75NTR(More)
Ors-binding activity (OBA) has been previously purified by its ability to specifically interact with A3/4, a 36-bp mammalian origin consensus sequence [1]. Peptide sequence analyses identified OBA as Ku86, the largest subunit of Ku antigen, a heterodimeric protein (Ku70/Ku86) involved in several autoimmune disorders [2-5]. The affinity-purified fraction(More)
The paper explains how research was conducted on desktop virtual reality (VR) in a four-year college, technical college, and industry training environments. It describes what the research team discovered to be important factors in its successful implementation of virtual reality in all three environments. The initial research project was conducted with a(More)