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Epitopes often require co-delivery with an adjuvant or targeting protein to enable recognition by the immune system. This paper reports the ability of transgenic tomato plants to express a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) and an immunocontraceptive epitope. The fusion protein was found to(More)
Stable integration of a gene into the plant nuclear or chloroplast genome can transform higher plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, tomato, banana) into bioreactors for the production of subunit vaccines for oral or parental administration. This can also be achieved by using recombinant plant viruses as transient expression vectors in infected plants. The use of(More)
The human epithelial mucin MUC1 is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein that is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated on over 90% of human breast cancers. The altered glycosylation of MUC1 reveals an immunodominant peptide along its tandem repeat (TR) that has been used as a target for tumour immunotherapy. In this study, we used the MUC1 TR(More)
Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen.(More)
Interest is growing for the use of plant-made vaccines for veterinary purposes since the regulatory landscape still enables delivery of either crude extracts or minimally processed plant materials to animals for medicinal purposes. In this article, we highlight the current research directions taken with four diseases considered as important constraints to(More)
The production of vaccines in transgenic plants was first proposed in 1990 however no product has yet reached commercialization. There are several risks during the production and delivery stages of this technology, with potential impact on the environment and on human health. Risks to the environment include gene transfer and exposure to antigens or(More)
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is an extremely virulent bacterium but there are no approved vaccines for protection against it. Our goal was to produce a vaccine that would address: ease of delivery, mucosal efficacy, safety, rapid scalability, and cost. We developed a novel production and delivery system for a plague vaccine of a Y. pestis(More)
Many advances continue to be made in the field of plant-derived vaccines. Plants have been shown capable of expressing a multicomponent vaccine that when orally delivered induces a T-helper cell subset 1 response and enables passive immunization. Furthermore, a plant-derived vaccine has been shown to protect against challenge in the target host. Increased(More)
Passive immunization plays an important role in protecting young mammals against pathogens before the maturation of their own immune systems. Although many reports have shown active immunization of animals and human through the use of plant-derived vaccines, only one report has given evidence of passive immunization of offspring through oral immunization of(More)
Most pathogenic microorganisms enter their host via the mucosal surfaces lining the digestive, respiratory and urino-reproductive tracts of the body. The most efficient means of protecting these surfaces is through mucosal immunization. Transgenic plants are safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the(More)