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Due to the putative involvement of dopaminergic circuits in depression, triple reuptake inhibitors are being developed as a new class of antidepressant, which is hypothesized to produce a more rapid onset and better efficacy than current antidepressants selective for serotonin or norepinephrine neurotransmission.(More)
NT69L, is a novel neurotensin (8-13) analog that participates in the modulation of the dopaminergic pathways implicated in addiction to psychostimulants. NT69L blocks nicotine-induced hyperactivity as well as the initiation and expression of sensitization in rats. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, with(More)
NT69L is a neurotensin analog that blocks nicotine-induced locomotor activity and has sustained efficacy in a rat model of nicotine-induced sensitization when administered peripherally. Additionally, NT69L attenuates food-reinforcement in rats. The present study tested the effect of acute administration of NT69L on nicotine self-infusion in Sprague-Dawley(More)
Most currently prescribed antidepressants act by selectively increasing the synaptic availability of serotonin or norepinephrine, or through action on both serotonin and norepinephrine. However, most therapies require several weeks of treatment before improvement of symptoms is observed and not all patients respond to antidepressant treatment. One strategy(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed in the central nervous system and has a role in regulating energy homeostasis and obesity. Up to a remarkable 6% of morbidly obese adults and children studied possess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MC4R. Upon stimulation by agonist, the MC4R signals(More)
Ghrelin stimulates food intake in part by activating hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons/agouti related peptide (AGRP) neurons. We investigated the role of AGRP/melanocortin signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake by studying melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor knockout (MC3R KO and MC4R KO) mice. We also determined whether reduced ghrelin levels and/or an(More)
A series of recent studies has demonstrated that the molecules involved in regulation of neuronal plasticity are also involved in the mode of action of antidepressants and mood stabilizer drugs. Intracellular calcium signaling, energy metabolism, and neuronal plasticity can be influenced by inducing axonal remodeling and increasing levels of certain(More)
The melanocortin system is well recognized to be involved in the regulation of food intake, body weight, and energy homeostasis. To probe the role of the MC(3) in the regulation of food intake, JRH322-18 a mixed MC(3) partial agonist/antagonist and MC(4) agonist tetrapeptide was examined in wild type (WT) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC(4)) knockout mice(More)
Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that, for decades, has been implicated in the biology of schizophrenia. It is closely associated with, and is thought to modulate, dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. This review outlines the neurochemistry and(More)
Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is one of only two naturally known antagonists of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) identified to date. Specifically, AGRP antagonizes the brain melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors involved in energy homeostasis. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is one of the known endogenous agonists for these melanocortin(More)