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Removal of pups for 24 h from rats at peak lactation decreased 3H2O incorporation into lipid in vivo in mammary gland by 95%, whereas it was increased in liver (77%) and adipose tissue (330%). These increases were prevented by administration of prolactin. Plasma insulin increased 3-fold on weaning and this was partially prevented by prolactin.
Fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of lactating rats in vivo was 5-fold higher than in the liver. Starvation decreased fatty acid synthesis in the gland 50-fold, whereas refeeding for 2h completely reversed this change. The plasma insulin concentration decreased 2-fold in starvation and was restored to the fed-rat value on refeeding. Glucagon and(More)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) inhibition has previously been shown to be protective against long-term neuropathy in diabetic animals. In the current study, we have determined that the GCP II inhibitor 2-(phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) is protective against glucose-induced programmed cell death (PCD) and neurite degeneration in dorsal(More)
1. Measurements of arteriovenous differences across mammary glands of normal and starved lactating rats, and lactating rats made short-term insulin-deficient with streptozotocin or prolactin-deficient with bromocryptine, showed that only in the starved animals was there a significant decrease in glucose uptake. This decrease was accompanied by release of(More)
Inhibition of glucose uptake by acetoacetate and relief of this inhibition by insulin found previously in slices of rat mammary gland [Williamson, McKeown & Ilic (1975) Biochem. J. 150. 145-152] was confirmed in acini, which represent a more homogeneous population of cells. Glycerol (1mM) behaved like insulin (50 minuits/ml) in its ability to relieve the(More)
Oleate (1mM) had only small inhibitory effects on glucose utilization and lipogenesis in acini isolated from rat mammary gland. Esterification of [1-14C]oleate was unaffected by insulin but were decreased by 60% by acetoacetate (2mM). Glycerol (1mM), but not insulin, relieved this inhibition. These experiments provide further support for the role of(More)
Immunoliposomes have been prepared using antibodies raised to an antigenic determinant on the cell surface of the oral bacterium Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis) in an investigation of their potential to reduce dental plaque. The N-succinimidyl-S-acetylthioacetate (SATA) derivative of the antibodies were conjugated through the reactive(More)
Incorporation of D-3-hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate into lipid in vivo suggests that lactating mammary gland is a major site of ketone-body utilization. The incorporation decreases in short-term insulin deficiency (2h) and on starvation (24h), but increases again on refeeding (2h). The activity of cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase parallels the changes in(More)
Antibacterial immunoliposomes have been prepared using covalently bound antibody, raised to the cell surface of the bacterium Streptococcus oralis (S. oralis), and incorporating the bactericides chlorhexidine and Triclosan. A regrowth assay, in which the ability of a bacterial biofilm immobilised on polystyrene to grow after exposure to a test solution, was(More)