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Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs is an increasing problem that decreases the productivity of livestock and threatens the success of treatment in humans. It is essential to understand the mechanisms in the development of resistance so that alternative treatment strategies can be developed. Changes in genes or in gene expression in response to(More)
Thioredoxins are a family of small proteins conserved through evolution, which are essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The "classic" thioredoxin, identified in most species, is a 12-kDa protein with a Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys (CPGC) active site. However, in nematodes a larger protein, 16 kDa, with a Cys-Pro-Pro-Cys (CPPC) active site was(More)
Given the large socio-economic burden of cancer, there is an urgent need for in vivo animal cancer models that can provide a rationale for personalised therapeutic regimens that are translatable to the clinic. Recent developments in establishing mouse models that closely resemble human lung cancers involve the application of genetically engineered mouse(More)
Heterogeneity is a hallmark of glioblastoma with intratumoral heterogeneity contributing to variability in responses and resistance to standard treatments. Promoter methylation status of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is the most important clinical biomarker in glioblastoma, predicting for therapeutic response.(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesised that alternating inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways would delay the development of resistance in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS A single-arm, two-stage, multicentre, phase 2 trial to determine the activity, feasibility, and(More)
The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form.(More)
The discovery of a number of viruses with the ability to induce tumours in animals and transform human cells has vastly impacted cancer research. Much of what is known about tumorigenesis today regarding tumour drivers and tumour suppressors has been discovered through experiments using viruses. The SV40 virus has proven extremely successful in generating(More)
The requirement of aerobic organisms to control damage caused by reactive oxygen species has led to the evolution of the antioxidant systems. Peroxiredoxins are a large family of peroxidases which detoxify hydrogen peroxide at the expense of thiols. The parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus contains two peroxiredoxins, HcPrx1 a mitochondrial protein and(More)