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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of adipogenesis and is medically important for its connections to obesity and the treatment of type II diabetes. Activation of this receptor by certain natural or xenobiotic compounds has been shown to stimulate adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Obesogens are chemicals that(More)
Obesity and related disorders are a burgeoning public health epidemic, particularly in the U.S. Currently 34% of the U.S. population is clinically obese (BMI > 30) and 68% are overweight (BMI > 25), more than double the worldwide average and 10-fold higher than Japan and South Korea. Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure; however,(More)
Obesogens are chemicals that directly or indirectly lead to increased fat accumulation and obesity. Obesogens have the potential to disrupt multiple metabolic signalling pathways in the developing organism that can result in permanent changes in adult physiology. Prenatal or perinatal exposure to obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals has been shown to(More)
Retinoic acid signaling is a major component of the neural posteriorizing process in vertebrate development. Here, we identify a new role for the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in the anterior of the embryo, where RAR regulates Fgf8 expression and formation of the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). RARα2 signaling induces key pre-placodal genes and establishes the(More)
Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental,(More)
BACKGROUND In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events. OBJECTIVES We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from early-life exposures in order to identify in utero and postnatal indicators of(More)
The identification of neurological symptoms caused by vitamin A deficiency pointed to a critical, early developmental role of vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). The ability of RA to induce post-mitotic, neural phenotypes in various stem cells, in vitro, served as early evidence that RA is involved in the switch between proliferation and(More)
BACKGROUND Triflumizole (TFZ) is an imidazole fungicide used on many food and ornamental crops. TFZ is not thought to be particularly toxic or carcinogenic, but little is known about its effect on development. TFZ is identified as a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activator in ToxCast. Because PPARγ is a master regulator of(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), used in manufacturing coatings and resins, leach from packaging materials into food. Numerous studies suggested that BPA and BADGE may have adverse effects on human health, including the possibility that exposure to such chemicals can be superimposed on traditional risk factors to(More)
Obesity and metabolic syndrome diseases have exploded into an epidemic of global proportions. The generally accepted cause of obesity is overconsumption of calorie-dense food and diminished physical activity (the calories in-calories out model). However, emerging evidence demonstrates that environmental factors can predispose exposed individuals to gain(More)