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SNAREs provide the specificity and energy for the fusion of vesicles with their target membrane, but how they are sorted into the appropriate vesicles on post-Golgi trafficking pathways is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the SNARE VAMP7 is directly mediated by Hrb, a clathrin adaptor and ArfGAP. Hrb wraps 20(More)
The draft Fugu rubripes genome was released in 2002, at which time relatively few cDNAs were available to aid in the annotation of genes. The data presented here describe the sequencing and analysis of 24,398 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated from 15 different adult and juvenile Fugu tissues, 74% of which matched protein database entries. Analysis of(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized to treat various symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Though ataxia syndromes have not been formally or frequently addressed with DBS, there are patients with ataxia and associated medication refractory tremor or dystonia(More)
The small GTPase Arf6 regulates endocytosis, actin dynamics, and cell adhesion, and one of its major activators is the exchange factor Arf nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO), also called cytohesin-2 [1, 2]. ARNO must be recruited from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in order to activate Arf6, and in addition to a Sec7 nucleotide-exchange domain it(More)
Gait initiation is a transitional task involving a voluntary shift from a static, stable position to a relatively less-stable state of locomotion. During gait initiation, anticipatory postural adjustments precede stepping in order to generate forward momentum while balance is maintained. While deficits in gait initiation are frequently reported for persons(More)
Protein zero (P0) glycoprotein is the major integral membrane protein of the peripheral nervous system myelin in higher vertebrates. Previous findings indicate the formation of tetrameric assemblies from studies on isolated P0. To determine whether in intact myelin the P0 exists as oligomers, we isolated myelin from sciatic nerve of Xenopus laevis and(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant and progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric manifestations. Chorea and dystonia are features that may be troublesome to some patients and may potentially prove unresponsive to pharmacological treatments. There are several reports on the results of globus(More)
The use of neuromodulatory techniques in the treatment of neurological disorders is expanding and now includes devices targeting the motor cortex, basal ganglia, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. In this chapter, we review and discuss the current and past literature as well as review indications for each of these devices(More)
Deep brain stimulation has been utilized to improve disease symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, and other neuropsychiatric syndromes such as depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. Deep brain stimulation has also been observed to improve tremor for select patients with multiple sclerosis. During intraoperative(More)