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BACKGROUND Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, its long-term cognitive effects remain inadequately studied. METHODS We recruited individuals aged 30 to 55 years in 3 groups: (1) 63 current heavy users who had smoked cannabis at least 5000 times in their lives and who were smoking daily at study entry; (2) 45 former(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals who initiate cannabis use at an early age, when the brain is still developing, might be more vulnerable to lasting neuropsychological deficits than individuals who begin use later in life. METHODS We analyzed neuropsychological test results from 122 long-term heavy cannabis users and 87 comparison subjects with minimal cannabis(More)
Evidence for the residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis must first be separated from evidence regarding (i) the acute effects of the drug, (ii) attributes of heavy cannabis users, and (iii) actual psychiatric disorders caused or exacerbated by cannabis. The remaining evidence must then be subdivided into (a) data supporting a 'drug residue' effect(More)
In the course of several ongoing studies, the authors have encountered men and women who display a form of body dysmorphic disorder in which they become pathologically preoccupied with their degree of muscularity. This condition, which the authors have tentatively termed "muscle dysmorphia," may cause severe subjective distress, impaired social and(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors tested the hypothesis that men in modern Western societies would desire to have a much leaner and more muscular body than the body they actually had or perceived themselves to have. METHOD The height, weight, and body fat of college-aged men in Austria (N=54), France (N=65), and the United States (N=81) were measured. Using the(More)
Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be(More)
OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that the physiques of male action toys--small plastic figures used by children in play--would provide some index of evolving American cultural ideals of male body image. METHOD We obtained examples of the most popular American action toys manufactured over the last 30 years. We then measured the waist, chest, and bicep(More)
Arseneault Arseneault et al et al (2004) very accurately re-(2004) very accurately reviewed recent epidemiological data and viewed recent epidemiological data and concluded that cannabis use concluded that cannabis use should now should now be considered as a component cause leading be considered as a component cause leading to psychosis. Yet at least two(More)
OBJECTIVE Many individuals, attempting to gain muscle or lose fat, use 'dietary supplements'. Though widely available over the counter or by mail order in America and Europe, some of these 'supplements' are actually potent drugs such as androstenedione and ephedrine. We sought to estimate the prevalence of these forms of drug use in American gymnasiums. (More)
The cognitive effects of long-term cannabis use are insufficiently understood. Most studies concur that cognitive deficits persist at least several days after stopping heavy cannabis use. But studies differ on whether such deficits persist long term or whether they are correlated with increasing duration of lifetime cannabis use. The authors administered(More)