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Epidemiological studies linking low birth weight and subsequent cardiometabolic disease have given rise to the hypothesis that events in fetal life permanently program subsequent cardiovascular risk. The effects of fetal programming may not be limited to the first-generation offspring. We have explored intergenerational effects in the(More)
Reproductive disorders that are common/increasing in prevalence in human males may arise because of deficient androgen production/action during a fetal 'masculinization programming window'. We identify a potentially important role for Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) in Leydig cell (LC) steroidogenesis that may partly(More)
The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that maldevelopment of the testis, irrespective of cause, leads to malfunction of the somatic (Leydig, Sertoli) cells and consequent downstream TDS disorders. Studies in rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) have strongly supported the TDS concept, but so far no direct evidence has(More)
Many epidemiological studies in diverse populations have demonstrated a link between low birth weight and subsequent disease. This evidence has given rise to the fetal origins hypothesis, which suggests that exposure of the fetus to an adverse environment in utero leads to permanent programming of tIssue function and a risk of cardiovascular disease. An(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown that the environment experienced in early life can 'programme' susceptibility to later disease. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that these effects can be transmissible to subsequent generations through non-genomic mechanisms, with profound implications for human populations. Several mechanisms can underpin the(More)
We investigated the effects of different windows of testosterone propionate (TP) treatment during foetal and neonatal life in female rats to determine whether and when excess androgen exposure would cause disruption of adult reproductive function. Animals were killed prepubertally at d25 and as adults at d90. Plasma samples were taken for hormone analysis(More)
DNA methylation (DNAm) plays a determining role in neural cell fate and provides a molecular link between early-life stress and neuropsychiatric disease. Preterm birth is a profound environmental stressor that is closely associated with alterations in connectivity of neural systems and long-term neuropsychiatric impairment. The aims of this study were to(More)
Early-life stress (ELS) is known to be associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic disease in later life. One of the potential mechanisms underpinning this is through effects on the epigenome, particularly changes in DNA methylation. Using a well-phenotyped cohort of 83 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who experienced(More)
Altered peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism may be important in the pathogenesis of obesity in humans and animal models. Genetically obese Zucker rats, Lep/ob mice, and obese humans exhibit increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids selectively in adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) and increased glucocorticoid(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal obesity is associated with increased birthweight, and obesity and premature mortality in adult offspring. The mechanism by which maternal obesity leads to these outcomes is not well understood, but maternal hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are both implicated. We aimed to establish whether the insulin sensitising drug metformin(More)