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Epidemiological studies linking low birth weight and subsequent cardiometabolic disease have given rise to the hypothesis that events in fetal life permanently program subsequent cardiovascular risk. The effects of fetal programming may not be limited to the first-generation offspring. We have explored intergenerational effects in the(More)
Altered peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism may be important in the pathogenesis of obesity in humans and animal models. Genetically obese Zucker rats, Lep/ob mice, and obese humans exhibit increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids selectively in adipose tissue by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) and increased glucocorticoid(More)
Common male reproductive abnormalities including cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and low sperm counts may comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), resulting from fetal testis dysfunction during a critical developmental period involving reduced androgen production/action. The recent increase in TDS prevalence suggests environmental/lifestyle factors may(More)
Reproductive disorders that are common/increasing in prevalence in human males may arise because of deficient androgen production/action during a fetal 'masculinization programming window'. We identify a potentially important role for Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) in Leydig cell (LC) steroidogenesis that may partly(More)
Many epidemiological studies in diverse populations have demonstrated a link between low birth weight and subsequent disease. This evidence has given rise to the fetal origins hypothesis, which suggests that exposure of the fetus to an adverse environment in utero leads to permanent programming of tIssue function and a risk of cardiovascular disease. An(More)
Compelling epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment, manifested by low-birth weight, is associated with cardiometabolic and behavioural disorders in adulthood. These observations have led to the concept of 'fetal programming'. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this relationship remain unclear, but are being(More)
The prevalence of obesity among pregnant women is increasing. In addition to the short-term complications of obesity during pregnancy in both mother and child, it is now recognised that maternal obesity has long-term adverse outcomes for the health of her offspring in later life. Evidence from both animal and human studies indicates that maternal obesity(More)
Fetal androgen action is an important determinant of Sertoli cell (SC) number at birth. Androgens "program" reproductive tract development in rats between embryonic d (e) 15.5 and e17.5 ("male programming window"), and this is reflected for life by anogenital distance (AGD). We investigated if androgen regulation of SC number/proliferation was also(More)
We have shown previously that deficient androgen action within a masculinization programming window (MPW; e15.5-e18.5 in rats) is important in the origin of male reproductive disorders and in programming male reproductive organ size, but that androgen action postnatally may be important to achieve this size. To further investigate importance of the MPW, we(More)
We report four white adolescents aged 13 to 15 years (three females, one male) from the south and west region of England who presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with significant obesity (body mass index more than +3SDS) in the past two years. Although these are the first reported obese, white cases from the UK to present with diabetes, we(More)