Amanda J. Cross

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BACKGROUND Red meat and processed meat have been associated with carcinogenesis at several anatomic sites, but no prospective study has examined meat intake in relation to a range of malignancies. We investigated whether red or processed meat intake increases cancer risk at a variety of sites. METHODS AND FINDINGS The National Institutes of Health(More)
Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for(More)
Diets containing substantial amounts of red or preserved meats may increase the risk of various cancers, including colorectal cancer. This association may be due to a combination of factors such as the content of fat, protein, iron, and/or meat preparation (e.g., cooking or preserving methods). Red meat may be associated with colorectal cancer by(More)
Background:Epidemiological evidence on meat intake and breast cancer is inconsistent, with little research on potentially carcinogenic meat-related exposures. We investigated meat subtypes, cooking practices, meat mutagens, iron, and subsequent breast cancer risk.Methods:Among 52 158 women (aged 55–74 years) in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian(More)
OBJECTIVES:Red and processed meats could increase cancer risk through several potential mechanisms involving iron, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and N-nitroso compounds. Although there have been multiple studies of meat and colorectal cancer, other gastrointestinal malignancies are understudied.METHODS:We estimated hazard ratios(More)
OBJECTIVES:No previous study has concurrently assessed the associations between meat intake, meat-cooking methods and doneness levels, meat mutagens (heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, and nitrite from meat and colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy.METHODS:Of the 807 eligible women in a(More)
There is ample evidence from basic research and animal carcinogenicity studies that heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagens and carcinogens. However, there was a paucity of human data due to a lack of appropriate investigative tools. We developed the first validated cooked meat module within a food frequency(More)
Cooking meat at high temperatures produces heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Processed meats contain N-nitroso compounds. Meat intake may increase cancer risk as HCAs, PAHs, and N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic in animal models. We investigated meat, processed meat, HCAs, and the PAH benzo(a)pyrene and the risk of(More)
Two recent case-control studies suggested that some flavonoid subgroups may play a role in preventing colorectal cancer. Previous prospective cohort studies generally reported no association; however, only a small subset of flavonoids was evaluated and partial flavonoid databases were used. We used the newly constructed U.S. Department of Agriculture(More)
Meats cooked at high temperatures, such as pan-frying or grilling, are a source of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We prospectively examined the association between meat types, meat cooking methods, meat doneness, and meat mutagens and the risk for prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. We estimated relative(More)