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BACKGROUND Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, its long-term cognitive effects remain inadequately studied. METHODS We recruited individuals aged 30 to 55 years in 3 groups: (1) 63 current heavy users who had smoked cannabis at least 5000 times in their lives and who were smoking daily at study entry; (2) 45 former(More)
Current user interfaces for automated patient and consumer health care systems can be improved by leveraging the results of several decades of research into effective patient-provider communication skills. A research project is presented in which several such "relational" skills - including empathy, social dialogue, nonverbal immediacy behaviors, and other(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals who initiate cannabis use at an early age, when the brain is still developing, might be more vulnerable to lasting neuropsychological deficits than individuals who begin use later in life. METHODS We analyzed neuropsychological test results from 122 long-term heavy cannabis users and 87 comparison subjects with minimal cannabis(More)
Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be(More)
Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several(More)
The cognitive effects of long-term cannabis use are insufficiently understood. Most studies concur that cognitive deficits persist at least several days after stopping heavy cannabis use. But studies differ on whether such deficits persist long term or whether they are correlated with increasing duration of lifetime cannabis use. The authors administered(More)
Evidence for the residual neuropsychological effects of cannabis must first be separated from evidence regarding (i) the acute effects of the drug, (ii) attributes of heavy cannabis users, and (iii) actual psychiatric disorders caused or exacerbated by cannabis. The remaining evidence must then be subdivided into (a) data supporting a 'drug residue' effect(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that cannabis may have antidepressant effects. However, methodologic limitations in available studies make the results difficult to interpret. We review this literature and present five cases in which the evidence seems particularly clear that marijuana produced a direct antidepressant effect. If true, these observations(More)
BACKGROUND Although cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, few recent American studies have examined the attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users. METHOD Using a case-control design, we obtained psychological and demographic measures on 108 individuals, age 30-55, who had smoked cannabis a mean of 18000 times and a minimum(More)
We have developed an animated PDA-based advisor that can engage sedentary adults in dialogues about their physical activity throughout the day. An integrated accelerometer enables the advisor to initiate interactions and provide real-time feedback. Results of preliminary usability testing of interaction modalities are presented and a planned efficacy study(More)
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