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BACKGROUND We examined risk of parkinsonism in occupations (agriculture, education, health care, welding, and mining) and toxicant exposures (solvents and pesticides) putatively associated with parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE To investigate occupations, specific job tasks, or exposures and risk of parkinsonism and clinical subtypes. DESIGN Case-control. (More)
Spiral analysis is an objective, easy to administer noninvasive test that has been proposed to measure motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease (PD). We compared overall Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part III scores to selected indices derived from spiral analysis in seventy-four patients with early PD (mean duration of disease 2.4 +/- 1.7 years,(More)
OBJECTIVES The presence of a deep brain stimulator (DBS) in a patient with a movement disorder who develops psychiatric symptoms poses unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for the treating clinician. Few sources discuss approaches to diagnosing and treating these symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS The authors review the literature on psychiatric(More)
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