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BACKGROUND There is accumulating evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The salivary cortisol response to awakening has been described recently as a non-invasive test of the capacity of the HPA axis to respond to stress. The results of this test correlate closely with those of more invasive(More)
Synaptic loss is the cardinal feature linking neuropathology to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism of synaptic damage remains incompletely understood. Here, using FRET-based glutamate sensor imaging, we show that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) engages α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to induce release of astrocytic glutamate,(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) are crucial mediators of physiological and behavioral responses to stress. In animals, CRF1 appears to primarily mediate CRF-induced anxiety-like responses, but the role of CRF2 during stress is still unclear. Here we report the effects of CRF1 and CRF2 on the magnitude and plasticity of(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with hypocortisolism, but it is not yet clear the extent to which enhanced negative feedback may underlie this finding. METHODS We undertook a low-dose dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression test in 18 CFS patients and 20 matched, healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol levels at 0800 h, 1200 h,(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have mild hypocortisolism. The clinical significance of this is unclear. We aimed to determine whether hypocortisolism exerted any effect on the response of CFS to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). METHOD We measured 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 84 patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the discrepancy between actual and perceived IQ in a sample of adolescents with CFS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that adolescents with CFS and their parent would have higher expectations of the adolescent's intellectual ability than healthy adolescents and their parent. METHODS The(More)
The reduced expression of the Sp4 gene in Sp4 hypomorphic mice resulted in subtle vacuolization in the hippocampus as well as deficits in sensorimotor gating and contextual memory, putative endophenotypes for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined both spatial learning/memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have mild hypocortisolism. One theory about the aetiology of this hypocortisolism is that it occurs late in the course of CFS via factors such as inactivity, sleep disturbance, chronic stress and deconditioning. We aimed to determine whether therapy aimed at reversing these(More)
It is well known that many parasitic wasps use herbivore-induced plant odours (HIPVs) to locate their inconspicuous host insects, and are often able to distinguish between slight differences in plant odour composition. However, few studies have examined parasitoid foraging behaviour under (semi-)field conditions. In nature, food plants of parasitoid hosts(More)
This paper explores students' potential to make a difference to their school through a Students as Researchers programme. It begins by discussing the impetus for the current increase in student voice initiatives in schools. It continues the debate around issues of student empowerment and students' identity as change agents through an analysis of the(More)