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Chronic tic disorders are characterized by involuntary motor and vocal tics, which are influenced by contextual factors. Recent research has shown that (a) children can suppress tics for brief periods of time, (b) suppression is enhanced when programmed reinforcement is provided for tic-free intervals, and (c) short periods of suppression do not result in a(More)
BACKGROUND Presence of an autism spectrum disorder is a risk factor for development of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) exhibited by individuals with developmental disorders. The most salient SIB risk factors historically studied within developmental disorders are level of intellectual disability, communication deficits and presence of specific genetic(More)
A meta-analysis of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) outcomes was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling (a) to document the effect size for decreasing problem behavior, (b) to compare effect sizes for NCR using functional reinforcers and nonfunctional reinforcers, and (c) to document the influence of schedule thinning on effect size. Analyses were(More)
We evaluated the effects of matched and unmatched stimuli on nail biting for three typically developing children and adolescents. Antecedent-based assessments identified conditions when subjects were most likely to engage in nail biting. Treatment included the noncontingent delivery of four types of highly preferred stimuli: items hypothesized to match the(More)
Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt to alter(More)
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