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BACKGROUND Blood-stage malaria vaccines are intended to prevent clinical disease. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02(A), a recombinant protein based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, has previously been shown to have immunogenicity and acceptable safety in Malian adults and children. METHODS In a double-blind,(More)
INTRODUCTION Interethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria provide a unique opportunity to explore immunological correlates of protection. The Fulani of Sahelian Africa are known for their reduced susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, compared with surrounding tribes, yet the immunology underlying this is still poorly understood. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-based malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02(A) in children exposed to seasonal falciparum malaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A Phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal(More)
Malaria is a major health burden in sub-Saharan African countries, including Mali. The disease is complex, with multiple genetic determinants influencing the observed variation in response to infection, progression, and severity. We assess the influence of sixty-four candidate loci, including the sickle cell polymorphism (HbS), on severe malaria in a(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive genetic diversity in vaccine antigens may contribute to the lack of efficacy of blood stage malaria vaccines. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) is a leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidate with extreme diversity, potentially limiting its efficacy against infection and disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites with diverse(More)
BACKGROUND The objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the AMA-1-based blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A in adults exposed to seasonal malaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense(More)
Vaccines directed against the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria are intended to prevent the parasite from invading and replicating within host cells. No blood-stage malaria vaccine has shown clinical efficacy in humans. Most malaria vaccine antigens are parasite surface proteins that have evolved extensive genetic diversity, and this diversity(More)
BACKGROUND The FMP2.1/AS02A candidate malaria vaccine was tested in a Phase 2 study in Mali. Based on results from the first eight months of follow-up, the vaccine appeared well-tolerated and immunogenic. It had no significant efficacy based on the primary endpoint, clinical malaria, but marginal efficacy against clinical malaria in secondary analyses, and(More)
The disappointing efficacy of blood-stage malaria vaccines may be explained in part by allele-specific immune responses that are directed against polymorphic epitopes on blood-stage antigens. FMP2.1/AS02(A), a blood-stage candidate vaccine based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, had allele-specific efficacy(More)
Many human genetic associations with resistance to malaria have been reported, but few have been reliably replicated. We collected data on 11,890 cases of severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and 17,441 controls from 12 locations in Africa, Asia and Oceania. We tested 55 SNPs in 27 loci previously reported to associate with severe malaria. There was(More)