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We propose a new methodology for the estimation of reference intervals for data sets with small numbers of observations or for those with substantial numbers of outliers. We propose a prediction interval that uses robust estimates of location and scale. The SAS software can be readily modified to do these calculations. We compared four reference interval(More)
BACKGROUND A significant number of chronic pain patients may use marijuana. Physicians treating those patients can benefit by knowing whether their patients using marijuana are at higher risk for using other illicit drugs such as cocaine and/or methamphetamine. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine whether marijuana-using chronic pain patients have a(More)
Competitive dopamine receptor antagonists increase the rate of cocaine self-administration. As the rate of self-administration at a particular unit dose is determined by the satiety threshold and the elimination half-life (t(½)) of cocaine, we investigated whether dopamine receptor antagonists altered these parameters in rats. The plasma cocaine(More)
The predominantly human sequence, high-affinity anticocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2E2 was cleared slowly from mouse blood by a first-order process with an elimination t(1/2) of 8.1 days. Infused 2E2 also produced a dramatic dose-dependent increase in plasma cocaine concentrations and a concomitant decrease in the brain cocaine concentrations produced by(More)
The antigenic structure of human albumin was investigated in order to establish whether or not there was any similarity between its antigenic sites. Using immunoadsorbent columns prepared with cyanogen bromide fragments of human serum albumin, antibodies directed against different portions of the albumin molecules were isolated. Measurement of the amount of(More)
Reference intervals serve as the basis of laboratory testing and aid the physician in differentiating between the healthy and diseased patient. Standard methods for determining the reference interval are to define and obtain a healthy population of at least 120 individuals and use nonparametric estimates of the 95% reference interval. This method is less(More)
BACKGROUND Improvement in reference interval estimation using a new outlier detection technique, even with a physician-determined healthy sample, is examined. The effect of including physician-determined nonhealthy individuals in the sample is evaluated. METHODS Traditional data transformation coupled with robust and exploratory outlier detection(More)
BACKGROUND Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is an endogenous enzyme cofactor, which may provide protective benefits as an antioxidant. Because age-related CoQ changes and deficiency states have been described, there is a need to establish normal ranges in healthy children. The objectives of this study are to determine if age-related differences in reduced CoQ(More)
BACKGROUND Immunoassay screening is used by pain physicians to determine compliance with controlled substances. Because clinical use of pain medications is different from illicit drug use, there is a need to evaluate the level of diagnostic accuracy of this procedure for the pain patient. OBJECTIVE To compare the results of automated screening by(More)