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Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that affects primarily the striatum and cerebral cortex. A search for the factors that increase the vulnerability of striatal neurons will lead to a better understanding of the pathological cascades of this disease. A current hypothesis for neurodegeneration of striatal(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by loss of striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSSNs), whereas some classes of striatal interneurons are relatively spared. Striatal interneurons provide most of the inhibitory synaptic input to MSSNs and use GABA as their neurotransmitter. We reported previously(More)
Glutamatergic afferents from the neocortex constitute the major excitatory input to striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Glutamate's actions on MSNs are modulated by dopamine (DA) through D1 and D2 receptor families. Although D1 modulation of glutamate responses has been well-characterized, the contribution of postsynaptic D2 receptors to(More)
The subunit composition of glutamate receptors affects their functional properties, and could contribute to abnormal electrophysiology in pediatric cortical dysplasia (CD). We examined electrophysiological responses and subunit assembly of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in acutely dissociated normal-appearing pyramidal and cytomegalic neurons from CD(More)
BACKGROUND patients who suffer from large territory cerebral infarctions have poor prognosis. Whether adjunctive surgical therapy improves clinical outcomes has long been a controversial topic. OBJECTIVE to determine whether surgical decompression, compared with best medical management, improves mortality and morbidity in the setting of a large territory(More)
BACKGROUND Migraine attacks manifest with hypersensitivities to light, sound, touch and odor. Some people with migraine have photosensitivity between migraine attacks, suggesting persistent alterations in the integrity of brain regions that process light. Although functional neuroimaging studies have shown visual stimulus induced "hyperactivation" of visual(More)
BACKGROUND The development of medication overuse headache (MOH) is associated with frequent use of analgesics, especially opiates, for treatment of primary headache disorders, particularly migraine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat migraine. OBJECTIVE To critically evaluate evidence estimating the risk of MOH(More)
OPINION STATEMENT Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive agents that can be considered for migraine preventative therapy. Although the exact mechanisms by which ACE inhibitors and ARBs may work for migraine prophylaxis are unknown, there are several plausible hypotheses as to why(More)
BACKGROUND Eye movements are necessary for the physical act of reading and have been shown to relate to underlying cognitive and visuoattentional processes during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of saccadic training using the King-Devick remediation software on reading fluency. METHODS In this prospective, single-blinded,(More)
Migraine headache is a significant health problem affecting women more than men. In women, the hormonal fluctuations seen during pregnancy and lactation can affect migraine frequency and magnitude. Understanding the evaluation of headache in pregnancy is important, especially given the increased risk of secondary headache conditions. Pregnancy and lactation(More)
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