Américo Tristão Bernardes

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Scientific and other non-patent references (NPRs) in patents are important tools to analyze interactions between science and technology. are 165,762 patents with at least one reference to science and engineering (S&E) literature, from a total of 1,375,503 references. Through a lexical analysis, 71.1% of this S&E literature is classified by S&E fields. These(More)
One of the most intriguing features of the immune system is regulation: a limited response when perturbed repeatedly. We propose a minimal network model for immune regulation in a lymphocyte network containing two types of elements: B lymphocytes and ligands that bind to their receptors. Effective interactions between B cells, mediated by other components(More)
The study of complex networks and the mechanisms underlying their formation gave an important direction to the research on the diffusion of information. It has been suggested that the network created by scientific citations follow a well-established picture of a scale-free network. Thus, citations should obey the basic mechanisms of preferential attachment,(More)
This paper presents a new methodology to describe global innovations networks. Using 167,315 USPTO patents granted in 2009 and the papers they cited, this methodology shows “scientific footprints of technology” that cross national boundaries, and how multinational enterprises interact globally with universities and other firms. The data and the map of these(More)
A bit-string model for the evolution of a population of haploid organisms, subject to competition, reproduction with mutation, and selection, is studied, using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that, depending on environmental flexibility and genetic variability, the model exhibits a phase transition between extinction due to random(More)
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