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Microbial communities carry out the majority of the biochemical activity on the planet, and they play integral roles in processes including metabolism and immune homeostasis in the human microbiome. Shotgun sequencing of such communities' metagenomes provides information complementary to organismal abundances from taxonomic markers, but the resulting data(More)
A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale framework to develop metagenomic protocols, resulting in a broad range of(More)
Using populations of two sympatric Peromyscus species, we characterized the importance of the host species, physiology, environment, diet, and other factors in shaping the structure and dynamics of their gut microbiota. We performed a capture-mark-release experiment in which we obtained 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 49 animals at multiple time points. In(More)
Ecologists hypothesize that community structure and stability affect productivity, sensitivity to invasion and extinction, and resilience and resistance to perturbations. Viewed in the context of the gut microbiome, the stability of the gut community is important for understanding the effects of antibiotics, diet change and other perturbations on host(More)
UNLABELLED Perturbations to the gut microbiota can result in a loss of colonization resistance against gastrointestinal pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Although C. difficile infection is commonly associated with antibiotic use, the precise alterations to the microbiota associated with this loss in function are unknown. We used a variety of(More)
Antibiotic usage is the most commonly cited risk factor for hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). The increased risk is due to disruption of the indigenous microbiome and a subsequent decrease in colonization resistance by the perturbed bacterial community; however, the specific changes in the microbiome that lead to increased risk are(More)
In cotyledons of germinating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. var. Stoneville 213) seedlings, in the dark, isocitric lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) activity peaks after 2 days and thereafter slowly declines to a negligible value after 8 days. The maximum activity of this enzyme in cotyledons of 2-day-old seedlings was 16.2 mumoles of glyoxylate formed/15 min.10 cotyledon(More)
The adaption of pathogens to their host(s) is a major factor in the emergence of infectious disease and the persistent survival of many of the infectious diseases within the population. Since many of the smaller viral pathogens are entirely dependent upon host machinery, it has been postulated that they are under selection for a composition similar to that(More)
BACKGROUND When introduced to novel environments, the ability for a species to survive and rapidly proliferate corresponds with its adaptive potential. Of the many factors that can yield an environment inhospitable to foreign species, phenotypic response to variation in the thermal climate has been observed within a wide variety of species. Experimental(More)