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Promises and Challenges of the Type Three Secretion System Injectisome as an Antivirulence Target.
TLDR
The T3SSi has been an attractive target for identifying small molecules, peptides, and monoclonal antibodies that inhibit its function to render the pathogen avirulent, and research into these antivirulence therapies requires combined efforts from both pharmaceutical companies and academic labs.
Induced Differentiation of M Cell-like Cells in Human Stem Cell-derived Ileal Enteroid Monolayers.
TLDR
The following protocol describes a method for the differentiation of M cells in a transwell epithelial polarized monolayer system of the intestine using human ileal enteroids, which can be applied to the study of M cell development and function.
A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.
TLDR
The results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile infections.
New Age Strategies To Reconstruct Mucosal Tissue Colonization and Growth in Cell Culture Systems.
TLDR
The latest studies using organoids and engineering technology that have been developed and applied to the study of host-pathogen interactions in mucosal tissues are discussed.
Detection of Cells Translocated with Yersinia Yops in Infected Tissues Using β-Lactamase Fusions.
TLDR
How to generate Yop-TEM constructs, and how to detect, quantify, isolate, and study YoTEM containing cells in murine tissues during infection and in ex vivo tissues by cell sorting and flow cytometry analysis are described.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopE prevents uptake by M cells and instigates M cell extrusion in human ileal enteroid-derived monolayers
TLDR
Enteroid-derived monolayers containing five intestinal cell types are used to study the interactions between the enteric pathogen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb), and M cells, finding that Yops impede M cell function, indicating that early infectious stage Yptb more effectively penetrates M cells while the host may defend against M cell penetration of host-adapted YptB.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopE prevents uptake by M cells and instigates M cell extrusion in human ileal enteroid-derived monolayers
TLDR
Human ileal enteroid-derived monolayers containing five intestinal cell types including M cells are used to study the interactions between the enteric pathogen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) and M cells, finding that Yops impede M cell function, indicating that early infectious stage Yptb more effectively penetrates M cells while the host may defend against M cell penetration of host-adapted YptB.