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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that detoxify heterocyclic compounds (xenobiotics) by covalently linking glutathione to the substrate, forming a glutathione S-conjugate. A glutathione pump in the vacuolar membrane of barley actively sequesters herbicide-glutathione S-conjugates; glutathionation allows recognition and entry of the conjugates(More)
Anthocyanin pathway-specific transcriptional activators R and C1 from the monocot maize were expressed in two dicots, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Expression of R caused augmented anthocyanin pigmentation in both plant species and augmented trichome (hair) production in Arabidopsis. Alone, C1 had no effect. Hybrid transgenic Arabidopsis(More)
The Arabidopsis mutant ttg lacks both trichomes (epidermal hairs) and anthocyanin pigments. Trichomes and anthocyanins are restored by the constitutive expression of the maize transcriptional regulator (R). The expression of an R-glucocorticoid receptor chimeric protein results in a steroid hormone-dependent, conditional allele of R that functions in whole(More)
Morphologically normal plants were regenerated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells transformed with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing a tumor-inducing plasmid with a chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance. The presence of the chimeric gene in regenerated plants was demonstrated by Southern hybridization analysis, and its expression in plant(More)
Xenobiotic resistance in animals, plants, yeast, and bacteria is known to involve ATP binding cassette transporters that efflux invading toxins. We present data from yeast and a higher plant indicating that xenobiotic resistance also involves extracellular ATP degradation. Transgenic upregulation of ecto-ATPase alone confers resistance to organisms that(More)
Arabidopsis trichomes are large unicellular structures that develop on the surface of most shoot-derived organs. In leaves, the number, spacing and shape of trichomes is tightly regulated, and this process has been used as an experimental system to study the control of cell fate and pattern formation. The control of trichome initiation is complex: both the(More)
Phenotypically normal petunia plants carrying chromosomal inserts of either the tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) A or the B component DNA, as single or tandem inserts, were obtained using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid-based transformation system. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the tandem, direct-repeat A plants contained free(More)
Transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been produced by a modified leaf disk transformation-regeneration method. Leaf pieces from sterilely grown plants were precultured for 2 days and inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an avirulent Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid with a chimeric gene encoding hygromycin resistance. After(More)
Apyrases are enzymes that efficiently hydrolyze ATP and ADP and may operate both inside and outside the cell. Although apyrases are important to a variety of cellular mechanisms and uses in industry, there are no available apyrase-specific inhibitors. Colorimetric assays based on the Fiske-Subbarow method for measuring inorganic phosphate are able to detect(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o This investigation offers an initial foray into the application of geo-tagged Twitter data for generating insights within two areas of retail geography: establishing retail centre locations and defining catchment areas. Retail related Tweets were identified and their spatial attributes examined with an adaptive kernel density(More)
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