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Our goal was to understand how patterns of excitation and inhibition, interacting across arrays of ganglion cells in space and time, generate the spiking output pattern for each ganglion cell type. We presented the retina with a 1-s flashed square, 600 microm on a side, and measured patterns of excitation and inhibition over an 1,800-microm-wide region(More)
Retinal bipolar cells can be divided into on and off types based on the polarity of their response to light. Bipolar activity is further shaped by inhibitory inputs, characterized here by the events that occur immediately after the onset of a light step: 1) in most off bipolar cells, excitatory current decreased, whereas inhibitory current increased. These(More)
In the mammalian retina, complementary ON and OFF visual streams are formed at the bipolar cell dendrites, then carried to amacrine and ganglion cells via nonlinear excitatory synapses from bipolar cells. Bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells also receive a nonlinear inhibitory input from amacrine cells. The most common form of such inhibition crosses over(More)
An ideal Software Defined Radio (SDR) requires a reconfigurable, intergrated, widely-frequency-tunable transceiver able to support different RX/TX duplex schemes. Here we present an integrated transceiver capable of supporting both TDD and FDD operation with >25dB integrated RX-TX isolation from 0.3-1.6GHz without any off-chip switches or filters. The(More)
The authors observed an acute desert-related disease when the mixture of the fine Saudi sand dust and pigeon droppings triggered a hyperergic lung condition. It was further aggravated by various kinds of organic pathogenic components contributing to an opportunistic infection of the lung. These all lead to the recognition of a new clinicopathological(More)
We introduce a fast method, the &#x201C;in-crowd&#x201D; algorithm, for finding the exact solution to basis pursuit denoising problems. The in-crowd algorithm discovers a sequence of subspaces guaranteed to arrive at the support set of the final solution of <i>l</i><sub>1</sub> -regularized least squares problems. We provide theorems showing that the(More)