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The CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) model decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of R factors and a residual array by minimizing the sum of squares of the latter. It is well known that an optimal solution for CP need not exist. We show that if an optimal CP solution does not exist, then any sequence of CP factors monotonically decreasing the CP(More)
It has been shown that a best rank-R approximation of an order-k tensor may not exist when R ≥ 2 and k ≥ 3. This poses a serious problem to data analysts using tensor decompositions. It has been observed numerically that, generally, this issue cannot be solved by consecutively computing and subtracting best rank-1 approximations. The reason for this is that(More)
Maximum likelihood estimation of the linear factor model for continuous items assumes normally distributed item scores. We consider deviations from normality by means of a skew-normally distributed factor model or a quadratic factor model. We show that the item distributions under a skew-normal factor are equivalent to those under a quadratic model up to(More)
Let X be a real-valued three-way array. The Candecomp/Parafac (CP) decomposition is written as X = Y (1) + · · · + Y (R) + E, where Y (r) are rank-1 arrays and E is a rest term. Each rank-1 array is defined by the outer product of three vectors a (r) , b (r) and c (r) , i.e. y (r) ij k = a (r) i b (r) j c (r) k. These vectors make up the R columns of the(More)
A key feature of the analysis of three-way arrays by Candecomp/Parafac is the essential uniqueness of the trilinear decomposition. We examine the uniqueness of the Candecomp/Parafac and Indscal decompositions. In the latter, the array to be decomposed has symmetric slices. We consider the case where two component matrices are randomly sampled from a(More)
The Candecomp/Parafac (CP) method decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number R of rank-1 arrays, by minimizing the sum of squares of the residual array. The practical use of CP is sometimes complicated by the occurrence of so-called degenerate sequences of solutions, in which several rank-1 arrays become highly correlated in all three modes and(More)
a best rank-1 approximation does not necessarily decrease tensor rank. HAL is a multidisciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of scientific research documents, whether they are published or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers. L'archive(More)