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Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling using non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM) is a powerful yet challenging technique, as the software is generally accessed from the command line. A graphical user interface, Piraña, was developed that offers a complete modeling environment for NONMEM, enabling both novice and advanced users to increase(More)
The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in samples taken during and up to 5 months after the end of(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of virtual endoscopy (VE) in the region of the nose and paranasal sinuses on the basis of volume-rendered spiral CT data. Forty-five patients underwent a low-dose spiral CT of the sinuses. The data were transferred to a workstation running software for volume rendering (EasyVision, Philips Medical(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used in the treatment of various diseases for over 20 years and combine high specificity with generally low toxicity. Their pharmacokinetic properties differ markedly from those of non-antibody-type drugs, and these properties can have important clinical implications. mAbs are administered intravenously,(More)
A wide interindividual variability in survival after cancer treatment is observed. This is attributable to many factors, including tumour and patient related factors. Genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters may be one of these factors. Drug metabolising enzymes are responsible for the activation, inactivation and(More)
PURPOSE The anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. Polymorphisms of these enzymes may affect the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and thereby its toxicity and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of known allelic(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the effect of anthropometric and biochemical variables and third-space effusions on paclitaxel pharmacokinetics in solid tumor patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plasma concentration-time data of paclitaxel were collected in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (n = 84), ovarian cancer (n =(More)
There is accumulating evidence for potential benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in the treatment of cancer with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Relationships between exposure and response (efficacy/toxicity) have been established for several TKIs. For example, the pharmacokinetic targets for efficacy of imatinib, sunitinib and pazopanib have(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma exposure of sunitinib shows large inter-individual variation. Therefore, a pharmacokinetic (PK) study was performed to determine safety and feasibility of sunitinib dosing based on PK levels. METHODS Patients were treated with sunitinib 37.5 mg once daily. At days 15 and 29 of treatment, plasma trough levels of sunitinib and N-desethyl(More)
Only anecdotal data are available on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of miltefosine in children suffering from visceral leishmaniasis (VL). While failure rates were higher in children with VL, steady-state concentrations appeared lower than those seen with adults. We hypothesized that the current linear dosage (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight) is too(More)