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Temporal precision in spike timing is important in cortical function, interactions, and plasticity. We found that, during periods of recurrent network activity (UP states), cortical pyramidal cells in vivo and in vitro receive strong barrages of both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, with the inhibitory potentials showing much higher power(More)
The recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections between and within layers of the cerebral cortex are fundamental to the operation of local cortical circuits. Models of cortical function often assume that recurrent excitation and inhibition are balanced, and we recently demonstrated that spontaneous network activity in vitro contains a precise balance of(More)
Spatial working memory (WM; i.e., "scratchpad" memory) is constantly updated to guide behavior based on representational knowledge of spatial position. It is maintained by spatially tuned, recurrent excitation within networks of prefrontal cortical (PFC) neurons, evident during delay periods in WM tasks. Stimulation of postsynaptic alpha2A adrenoceptors(More)
Traditionally, neuronal operations in the cerebral cortex have been viewed as occurring through the interaction of synaptic potentials in the dendrite and soma, followed by the initiation of an action potential, typically in the axon. Propagation of this action potential to the synaptic terminals is widely believed to be the only form of rapid communication(More)
The basal forebrain (BF) is a heterogeneous structure located in the ventral aspect of the cerebral hemispheres. It contains cholinergic as well as different types of noncholinergic corticopetal neurons and interneurons, including GABAergic and peptidergic cells. The BF constitutes an extrathalamic route to the cortex, and its activity is associated with an(More)
During natural vision, the entire visual field is stimulated by images rich in spatiotemporal structure. Although many visual system studies restrict stimuli to the classical receptive field (CRF), it is known that costimulation of the CRF and the surrounding nonclassical receptive field (nCRF) increases neuronal response sparseness. The cellular and(More)
Cortical pyramidal cells are constantly bombarded by synaptic activity, much of which arises from other cortical neurons, both in normal conditions and during epileptic seizures. The action potentials generated by barrages of synaptic activity may exhibit a variable site of origin. Here we performed simultaneous whole cell recordings from the soma and axon(More)
Single, biocytin filled neurons in combination with immunocytochemistry and retrograde tracing as well as material with traditional double-immunolabeling were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to study the neural circuitry within the basal forebrain. Cholinergic neurons projecting to the frontal cortex exhibited extensive local collaterals(More)
Spontaneous activity within local circuits affects the integrative properties of neurons and networks. We have previously shown that neocortical network activity exhibits a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials, and such activity has significant effects on synaptic transmission, action potential generation, and spike timing. However,(More)
The basal forebrain (BF) contains cholinergic as well as different types of non-cholinergic corticopetal neurons and interneurons, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing cells. BF corticopetal neurons constitute an extrathalamic route to the cortex and their activity is associated with an increase in cortical release of the neurotransmitter(More)